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WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportandRecommendationsMay2014Preparedbywww.indiggoassociates.com ThisprocesswasfacilitatedbySethVerryandEllenKagenofIndiggoAssociates.Indiggoisaleadershipconsultingfirmthatfocusesonstrengtheningandacceleratingleadershipperformance.FormoreinformationpleaseusethecontactinformationbelowIndiggoAssociatesLLC4600EastWestHighwaySuite875BethesdaMD20814240.314.0533www.indiggoassociates.com WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014IITableofContentsExecutiveSummaryandRecommendationsiReportSection1-Introduction1Section2-AnalysisoftheProblemandWSSCsCurrentApproach5Section3-IdentificationofPotentialSolutions13Section4-InterestsatStake16Section5-Recommendations195.ACrossCuttingRecommendations195.BPreventionRecommendations225.CMitigationRecommendations275.DResponseRecommendations33ReportAppendixAppendix6.AOriginal80-FootSetbackProposal37Appendix6.BResolutionEstablishingtheAdHocCommittee38Appendix6.CAdHocCommitteeRoster40Appendix6.DBibliographyandReferences43Appendix6.EDrawingsofPCCPDesign47Appendix6.FHistoryofWSSCsPCCPManagementProgram48Appendix6.GSafetyAnalysisScore50ProcessNarrativeAppendixAppendix7.AProcessNarrative52Appendix7.BPurposeandMembershipofWorkgroups62Appendix7.CMissionandCharter63Appendix7.DCommunicationAgreements65ResearchonOtherCommunitiesAppendixAppendix8.AKeyFindingsfromtheResearch66Appendix8.BInterviewSurveyResponses68 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014IWashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommissionWSSCAdHocCommitteeonLarge-DiameterWaterMainsEXECUTIVESUMMARYANDRECOMMENDATIONSTheWSSCAdHocCommitteeonLarge-DiameterWaterMainswasassembledatthedirectionoftheWSSCCommissionersinresponsetoconcernsraisedbybi-countyplanningauthoritiesandelectedofficialsofMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesregardingaWSSCstaffproposal.TheWSSCproposalwasmeanttomodifyexistingspecialconsiderationslanguageintheWSSCDesignManualregardingPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipePCCPwhichwasseenasprovidinginadequateguidancetostaffanddevelopers.TheWSSCproposalestablishedaspecificthresholdwithflexibilityformitigatingriskthatbecameknownasthe80-footsetback.Theaffectedstakeholdersquestioned1theprocessusedwhentheregulatorychangewasadoptedand2whetheradequateconsiderationhadbeengiventothelikelihoodandextentofriskinrelationshiptotheexpectedcostsandbenefitsoftheproposedchange.WhenafacilitatedprocesswasproposedinresponsetotheconcernselectedofficialsaskedtheCommissionerstoexpandthescopetoincludeexistingdevelopmentthatisadjacenttoPCCPnotjustnewdevelopmenttoincludeotherpotentialsolutionsnotjustthesetbackproposalandtoensurethattheCommitteeincludedrepresentationfromabroadrangeofinterestedparties.AccordinglyWSSCcreatedanAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainscomprisedofpublicadministratorsfromeachcountytheirschoolboardsandplanningauthoritiesaswellasWSSCstaffcivicinterestsanddeveloperandindustryrepresentatives.ReflectingthebroadenedscopeofworktheCommitteeadoptedthefollowingmissiontoexaminetherisksassociatedwiththefailureoflarge-diameterPCCPandCastIronwatermainsandtodevelopasetoffullyinformedrecommendationsforhowtopreventandmitigatetheserisks.TheCommitteereviewedinformationprovidedbyWSSCandconsideredamongotherthingstheincidenceofPCCPfailuretheconsequencesresultingfrominstancesofPCCPbreaksWSSCsPCCPinspectionmonitoringandrepairandreplacementprogrampipemanagementprogramandpracticesinotherjurisdictions.TheAdHocCommitteefoundthatWSSChasastate-of-the-artPCCPpipemanagementprogramandthattheactualpercentagemileageandsectionsofPCCPpipesatriskisstatisticallysmallwithlessthan2ofPCCPinspectedfoundtobeinneedofrepairorreplacement.Thefrequencyorprobabilityoffailureisverylowsince1993therehaveonlybeen8PCCPbreaksintheWSSCtransmissionsystemandthroughitspipemanagementprogramincludingmonitoringWSSChasoftenbeenabletorepairorreplacePCCPbeforethepipesbreak.OntheotherhandPCCPmainsareknowntofailinstantaneouslyandwithexplosiveforcecausingfloodingcrateringanddebristhrowwaterjetadifferentresultthanastructuralfailureofpipesmadeofothermaterials.AlthoughthereisthepotentialforharmfromallthreeofthesebreakconsequencestheAdHocCommitteefoundthatfloodingisthegreatestconcernduetoitsdurationfloodingcontinuesuntilthewatercanbeturnedoffsafelythepotentialforbroadgeographicimpactanditsroleincratercreation.TheCommitteefoundthatWSSCspipemanagementprogramisacomprehensivemonitoringandinspectionprogramthatfacilitatestherepairorreplacementofPCCP.AkeyfeatureofthisprogramisanAcousticFiberOpticAFOmonitoringsystemWSSCisbelievedtobealeaderintheindustryintheuseofthistechnology.BasedupontheinformationpresentedbyWSSCstaffincludingthefactthatmorethan98ofthelargediameterPCCPintheWSSCsystemisingoodconditionwithsignificantremainingusefullifeandthesuccessoftheAFOmonitoringcoupledwiththescheduledinspection WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014IIreplacementandrepairprogramtheAdHocCommitteebelievesthatthereisahighlikelihoodthatWSSCspipemanagementprogramwillprovideadequatenoticebeforeaPCCPactuallyfails.TheCommitteealsodiscussedfactory-fabricatedoutletslocatedwithintwofeetorlessoftheendofaPCCPpipesegmentthetypeofjointinvolvedintheMarch2013ConnecticutAvenuebreakwhichappearedtobeoneareaofthepipesystemassemblagethatcouldbreakwithoutAFOwarning.BaseduponinformationfromtechnicalstafftheCommitteelearnedthatleakagearoundthejointprecededthebreakwhichofferstheopportunityfordevelopinganadditionalachievablemonitoringsystem.ThatsaidwhentakingintoaccountthelowprobabilityofPCCPfailuresthepotentialforsignificantconsequencesfromsuchfailuresthehighlevelofconfidenceinWSSCscurrentapproachaswellasarealisticrisktolerancethatgoeswithlivinginabuiltenvironmentsomeadditionalactionsbeyondWSSCscurrentprogramareadvisable.Abroadandencompassingapproachtothisissueisappropriateandshouldincludepreventionmitigationandresponsestrategies.Potentialproblemsassociatedwithlarge-diameterpipefailurescanbereducedbyReducingthenumberofbreaksthatoccurthroughmonitoringrepairandreplacementpreventionMitigatingtheimmediateimpactofthebreaksthatdohappenmitigationandorReducingtheensuingdisruptiontodailylifethatcanalsoaccompanyabreakresponseCentraltotheconsiderationofanynewsolutionstothisissueisariskassessmentandcostbenefitanalysisinwhichthelevelofrisklikelihoodforPCCPfailureinagivenlocationandthepotentialconsequencesofsuchfailureareevaluatedalongwithanevaluationofthecostorburdenoftherecommendedresponses.Giventherelativelylowlikelihoodofthesefailuresnewsolutionsthatreducetheriskfurthershouldonlybeundertakenafterconsideringwhetherthecostsareappropriateandreasonable.Itwasforthisreasonthatbroad-brushsystemicpolicychangessuchasWSSCs80-footsetbackproposalevengivenitsnuancesandexclusionsweretakenoffthetableforconsideration.TheverynatureofthisissuealsomeansthatnoonepolicyneithercannorshouldbedevelopedtoaddressthepotentialforharmcausedbythefailureofPCCP.Aonesizefitsallsolutionisnotwarrantedefficientcost-effectiveorpractical.Ratheratoolkitshouldbecreatedwithsegmentedandprioritizedpolicyapproachesthatreflectandtakeintoconsiderationmultiplefactorsincludingtheconditionandnatureofthepipeitselfthephysicalenvironmentinwhichthepipeexistsandthenatureofhumanactivityaswellasthenaturalandbuiltenvironmentabovetheground.WiththistypeofpolicyapproachpreventionandmitigationeffortsincludingmonitoringinvestmentsandrepairreplacementeffortsarenotspreaduniversallyacrossthecountiesservedbyWSSCoracrossthepipesystembutratheraretargetedatareaswheremonitoringandinspectionresultsindicatethatabreakmaybemorelikelyandwherethelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamagemaybehigher.Thedistinctionbetweenthetwopartsofthisequationareveryrealandmeaningfulwithonedriverbeingthedeterminationthatapipemaybeatriskthoughapiperiskassessmentandanotherdriverbeingthedeterminationthataparticularareaisathigherriskofconsequencesshouldabreakoccur.Thisassessmentshouldbebasedonthenatureandconditionofthepipethephysicalenvironmentinwhichthepipesexistsuchastopographyandothergeographicconditionsandthenatureofthenaturalandbuiltenvironmentabovethegroundsuchasthepresenceofcriticalinfrastructurepopulationdensityoroccupancybyat-riskpopulations. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014IIITherecommendationsputforwardinthisreportarethosemostalignedwiththistoolkitframeworkandthenatureandscopeoftheproblemandofferingthebestoverallprofileofbenefitsversuscosts.Althoughthemajorityoftherecommendationsdealwithspecificaspectsofthesolutionsframeworkreducingbreaksmitigatingimpactsreducingdisruptionthreeoftherecommendationscutacrossthesemorespecificcategories.Thisreflectstheinterestinsomecriticalcapabilitiesinvolvingvisualizationandriskassessmentthatwhendevelopedcouldinturnenableimplementationofothermorespecificrecommendations.SeveraloftherecommendationsalsoreflectaninterestinandneedformoreactiveinteragencycollaborationensuringthatWSSCissufficientlyengagedinthedevelopmentreviewandmasterplanprocessesandotherestablishedmechanismsforcoordinationandcollaborationonthisandotherissuessuchasintheareaofemergencymanagement.Furtherthisreportdoesnotaddresstheimplementationoftherecommendationsasthatwillrequirefurtherconsiderationandcollaborationoncetherecommendationsareaccepted.AlthoughtheserecommendationsarewrittenforWSSCthereisanawarenessthattherewillbeongoingsharedresponsibilityandaneedfortransparencyinthedevelopmentandimplementationoftherecommendationsasacceptedaswellasongoingactiveengagementbythoseprivateandpublicstakeholderspotentiallyimpacted.THECOMMITTEESRECOMMENDATIONSOrganizedbytheSolutionsFrameworkandNOTlistedinanypriorityorderCross-CuttingRecommendationsSection5.Ainthefullreport1CompletethedevelopmentofthesetofmapswhichtheCommitteeinitiatedasaprototypethatoverlaymultipleGeographicInformationSystemGISlayerswithWSSCsystemdatatohelppolicy-makersvisualizetherelationshipbetweenthesepipesandthebuiltandnaturalenvironmentVisualizationMapping.2RevisethecurrentWSSCriskassessmentrankingsystemtoaddweightingandnuancetotheabove-the-groundfactorssuchaslanduseenvironmentalimpactandthepotentialforflooding.3ProvidethepublicwithabalancededucationregardingtherisksofPCCPbreaksandWSSCseffortstopreventthemandmitigatetheirconsequences.PreventionRecommendationsSection5.Binthefullreport4WSSCshouldensureitslong-termstrategyforlarge-diameterPCCPrepairandreplacementputsappropriateemphasisontargetedareaswherethelikelihoodofabreakandthelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamagemaybehigher.5BuildadditionalredundancyintothetransmissionsystemtoincreaseWSSCsabilitytomakenecessaryrepairsandupgradeswhileminimizingriskoflossofwaterservicetoWSSCcustomers. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014IV6Exploretheoperationalandbudgetaryfeasibilityofamoreaggressiveinspectionscheduleforlarge-diameterPCCP.7Developaninventoryoffactory-fabricatedoutletslocatedwithintwofeetorlessoftheendofapipesegmentthetypeofjointinvolvedintheMarch2013ConnecticutAvenuebreakandfasttrackthefeasibilityofdevelopingamonitoringprogramfortheselocations.8Investinadditionalresearchanddevelopmentintopiperepairandrefurbishmenttechnologiesandapproaches.MitigationRecommendationsSection5.Cinthefullreport9LeveragetheVisualizationMappingtounderstandtherelationshipbetweenlarge-diameterPCCPandthebuiltandnaturalenvironmentsandtoassistindevelopinganunderstandingofthelikelihoodoffloodingconsequencesnotethatthisisnotintendedtoreplaceprofessionalengineeringfloodanalyses.10Ensurethesufficiencyaccessibilityandproperoperationofvalvestorespondtopotentialbreaksincludingverifyingthelocationofexistingvalvesanddeterminingwhetheradditionalvalvesareneeded.11RemovetheSpecialConsiderationslanguagefromtheWSSCDesignManualwhichallowsWSSCtoimposespecialconsiderationsandmodificationstoanynewdevelopmentproposedwithintwohundred200feetofPCCP.12WSSCshouldadviseownersdevelopersintheearlystagesofthedevelopmentprocessofthepresenceandlocationofPCCPtransmissionmainsrelatedtotheproposeddevelopmentshownondevelopmentplansandtherisksassociatedwiththeirfailure.13Intheeventaproposeddevelopmentcouldbeimpactedbylarge-diameterPCCPWSSCshouldbeactivelyengagedintheDevelopmentReviewCommitteeMontgomeryCountyandSubdivisionandDevelopmentReviewCommitteePrinceGeorgesCounty.14WSSCshouldtakeamoreactiveroleinthemasterplanprocessbeginningwithearlymeetingswithstaffwheninitiallanduserecommendationsarebeingconsideredatlocationsthatmaybedirectlyimpactedbylarge-diameterPCCP.ResponseRecommendationsSection5.Dinthefullreport15AcomprehensiveEmergencyResponsePlanERPshouldbepreparedandfollowedintheeventofanymajordisruptiontothewatersupply.16Workwithorganizationsthatcouldbemostaffectedbyabreaktohelpensuretheyareeducatedandpreparedtodealwiththeimpactsofalarge-diameterPCCPbreak.17UponidentifyingthataPCCPsegmentisfailingpriortoabreakprovidetimelynotificationtoemergencymanagementandotherappropriateagenciesincludingelectedofficialsandBoards WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014VofEducationinMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiessothatappropriatepreparatoryactioncanbeinitiatedandcoordinatedinadvanceofanactualevent.18Whenalarge-diameterwatermainbreakoccursassembleastandardsetofinformationasrapidlyaspossiblesothatitcanbeconveyedtoallrelevantpartiesincludingaffectedneighborhoodsappropriateagenciesandthemedia.19Assistinthedevelopmentofacomprehensivetrafficresponseplanthatwouldaimtominimizedisruptionwhenasignificantbreakoccursalongamajorarteryortransitline.20Takealeadroleinthedevelopmentofstrategiesandplansforprovidingresidentswithwaterintheeventofalarge-scaleandorlong-termdisruptiontothewatersupply.21EstablishcriteriaforwhenaCountysEmergencyOperationCenterEOCneedstobeactivatedworkinginconjunctionwithrelevantofficialsfromMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCounties. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320141THECOMMITTEESREPORTSECTION1INTRODUCTION1.ABackgroundTheWashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommissionWSSCisamongthelargestwaterandwastewaterutilitiesinthenationwithanetworkofnearly5600milesoffreshwaterpipelineandmorethan5400milesofsewerpipelineina1000squaremileservicearea.ThemissionofWSSCistoprovidetheresidentsofPrinceGeorgesandMontgomerycountieswithsafeandreliablewaterandreturncleanwatertoourenvironmentallinanethicalsustainableandfinanciallyresponsiblemanner.MostofWSSCswatermainsaredistributionmains.Larger-diametertransmissionmainswhichrangebetween36and96inchesindiameteraccountforonly200milesoftheWSSCwatersystem.ThemajorityofthesetransmissionmainswereconstructedfromPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipePCCP145milesorcastiron18mileswiththebalanceconstructedfromothermaterialssuchassteelandductileiron.Inthe1990smanyjurisdictionsaroundthecountybegantoexperiencebreakageswithPCCP.Since1993WSSChasexperienced8instancesoflargePCCPbreakage.Whileanywatermainbreakisproblematicalarge-diametertransmissionmainfailureincreasesthoseproblemsexponentially.MoreoverwhenaPCCPorcastironpipelineofthatsizebreakstherupturetendstobesuddenandwithaninitialexplosiveforceandlargeamountsofpressurizedwaterarereleasedwithaninitialvelocitythancanexceed90milesperhour.Large-diametermainsconstructedfromothermaterialssuchasductileironandsteeltendtocrackandleakasopposedtobreakingapartprovidingnotonlyadvancenoticeoffailurebutmoreimportantlyamuchlessdestructiveevent.WithPCCPandcastironinadditiontothedangerstopersonsandpropertyposedbytheactualbreakandfloodingtheimpacttothesystemandcustomerscanbeenormousasitmayeffectivelydisruptwaterservicetolargeportionsoftheserviceareafordaysatatime.Inthelate1990sWSSCbeganrequiringductileironandsteelpipematerialsforitslargediameterpipelines.AlthoughWSSChasreplacedsomeofits72-84-and96-inchPCCPpipelineswithsteelorductileironandhasrelinedportionsofthesepipeswithsteelovertheyears163milesofthemoreproblematicPCCPandcastiron1pipelineremaininthesystem.In2009inanattempttoaddressthisproblemWSSCdevelopedaproposaltoreviseitsexistingspecialconsiderationslanguageintheWSSCDesignManualwhichwasseenasprovidinginadequateguidancetostaffanddevelopers.TheWSSCproposalwhichtargetedproposednewdevelopmentnexttoPCCPandestablishedaspecificsetbackthresholdbecameknownasthe80-footsetbackproposal.Toprovidesomedegreeofflexibilitycertaintypesofdevelopmentwereexemptedandcertainsite-specificengineeringsolutionscouldbeemployedinplaceofthelargersetback.21FromthispointforwardinthereportduetothesimilaritiesinthewaythesepipesbehavewhentheybreakcastironpipesareincludedinthediscussionofPCCP.2SeeAppendix6.Afortheoriginal80-footsetbackproposalthatlaunchedthisprocess. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320142ThisnewregulationwasintendedtoaddressWSSCspublicsafetyconcernsregardingthefailureofthesepipes.HoweverpublicofficialsinbothMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesaswellasTheMaryland-NationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionwhichisresponsibleforlanduseplanninganddevelopmentreviewforeachcountyanddevelopersimpactedbythenewregulationwereconcernedthatWSSCneededtomorefullyassesstherisksassociatedwiththesepipesandtoidentifyappropriatestrategiesthattookintoaccountsocialandeconomicconsiderationsaswell.AttheurgingoftheCountyExecutivestheCountyCouncilsandtheotherpublicandprivateorganizationsimpactedbyWSSCsactionsWSSCformedanAdHocCommitteeinordertogainthebroadestperspectivethatcouldassistitinidentifyingappropriatesolutionsforamorebalancedandcomprehensiveapproachresponsivetoallinterests.3TheCommitteewascomposedof20high-levelleadersrepresentingavarietyofinterestsfrombothMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesasshownbelowDepartmentandorDivisionDirectorsrepresentingbothCountyExecutivesHigh-levelrepresentativesfromTheMarylandNationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionSeniorCountyCouncilstafffrombothMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesBusinessindustryleadersfromboththePropertyDevelopmentandOwnerscommunitySchoolleaderswithexpertiseinconstructionandbuildingdesignfrombothMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesMunicipalleadersattheDirectorlevelCivicandconsumerleadersrepresentingthecustomerssuchastheChairoftheWSSCCustomerAdvisoryBoardandWSSCleadersincludingthechiefofstaffandexecutiveleaderswithlegalandengineeringexpertise.41.BTheCommitteesProcessTheCommitteesprocesswasanintensiveeffortwithongoingandfocusedengagementbyitsmembers.Spanninga12-monthperiodtheprocessincludedakick-offeducationalbriefinginterviewswithallmembersoftheCommitteeandotherkeystakeholdersaseriesof11Committeemeetingsof5to8hoursinlengthprimaryandsecondaryresearchontherelevantpracticesofthewaterutilitiesinotherjurisdictionsaswellaseffortsbymultipleworkgroupseachwithadiscretetaskandoutcomewhichwerecreatedtosupporttheprocess.1.B.1MissionoftheCommitteeThefollowingMissionStatementwasdevelopedtoguidetheactionsoftheCommitteeandspelloutitsoverallgoalbyestablishingtheframeworkorcontextwithinwhichstrategiesforsuccesscouldbeformulated.TheWSSCAdHocCommitteewasformedwiththegoalofbringingtogetherthekeystakeholderstoassistWSSCinanopenandcollaborativedeliberationtoconsidertherisksassociatedwith3SeeAppendix6.BfortheResolution.4SeeAppendix6.CfortheCommitteemembershiproster WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320143large-diameterwatermainbreakswithrespecttoexistingcommunitiesandnewdevelopmentandredevelopmentprojects.ThelargediameterwatermainsattheheartofthisCommitteesworkaretransmissionmainswithdiameters36andlargermadeofPCCP145milesofpipeandCastIron18milesofpipewhichareknowntofailinstantaneouslywithexplosiveforce.TheCommitteeischargedwithdevelopingasetoffullyinformedrecommendationstosubmittotheWSSCCommissionersforhowtopreventandmitigateanyriskstodayandintothefutureassociatedwiththefailureofthesepipes.1.B.2CharteroftheCommitteeTheCommitteealsodevelopedadetailedCharteroutliningthekeyaspectsofitsworkplan.TheCharterprovidedapathtorealizingitsMission.The11-pointcharterisasfollows1.WorkcollaborativelywiththefacilitatortonametheCommitteeaffirmitsmissionanddevelopaworkplanthatwillenabletheCommitteetofulfillitsmission.2.WorkcollaborativelywiththefacilitatortodevelopasetofgroundrulesthatenabletheCommitteetoproceedinamannerthatisfairinclusionaryandopen.3.Understandthenaturemagnitudeandextentoftheproblemoflarge-diameterwatermainbreaksbyconsideringandunderstandingthelikelihoodofbreaksintheWSSCtransmissionsystemandtheirconsequenceswithrespecttopublicsafetypropertydamageandotherfactors.4.IdentifyWSSCapproachescurrentlyinplaceandassessthesufficiencyofthecurrentapproachestomitigatetherisksoffailureincludingcurrentsetbackstandardsandinspectionandmonitoringprograms.5.Determinethefullsetofstakeholderintereststhatmayneedtobefactoredintotheconsiderationofanypotentialsolutionformitigatinganyrisksassociatedwithlargediameterwatermainsincludingforinstancepublicsafetyoperationalrequirementspropertyrightswaterratesandthelandusepoliciesgoalsandmasterplansofbothcounties.6.Developarobustsetofalternativesolutionsforpreventingandmitigatinganyidentifiedrisksassociatedwithlarge-diameterwatermainbreaksthatapplytoexistingcommunitiesandnewdevelopmentandredevelopmentprojectsincludingWSSCs80-footsetbackproposal.7.Evaluatethecostsandbenefitsofidentifiedalternativestakingintoconsiderationandbalancingsocialeconomicandfiscalstakeholderinterests.8.LeverageCommitteemembersCommitteememberagenciesandexternalresourcestoprovidetechnicalsupporte.g.professionalexpertiseinstructuralengineeringdesignconstructionandlandusewhereneededbytheCommitteetomakeafullyinformeddecision.9.BasedontheseconsiderationsdeterminethesetofsolutionstorecommendtotheWSSCCommissionthattogetherasaportfoliotoolboxofsolutionsrepresenttheCommitteesviewofthebestoverallapproachrecommendationsmayalsoincludeimplicationsfor WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320144interagencyimplementationincludinginteragencyagreementsandpotentialchangesinpolicy.10.ProvidetheWSSCCommissionerswithawrittenreportoftheCommitteesfindingsandrecommendationsincludingidentifiedstakeholderinterestscostandbenefitsofrecommendedapproachesandrolesandresponsibilitiesofstakeholdersinimplementinganyrecommendationinanyareaswhereconsensuscannotbeachievedthereportshouldreflectthereasonstheCommitteewasunabletoreachconsensus.11.AimtoprovidetheWSSCCommissionerswithaninterimreportoftheCommitteesfindingsandrecommendationsfortheirthoughtfulconsiderationanddeliberationbefore31December2013andaimforafinalreportbefore31March2014.TheProcessNarrativeprovidesdetailedinformationoneachaspectoftheCommitteesprocessaswellasdescriptionsoftheworkgroupsorganizedbythe11componentsoftheCommitteescharter.51.B.3ResearchonOtherCommunitiesTosupportitsanalysisoftheproblemandasaninputtodevelopingandfinalizingitsrecommendationstheCommitteeconductedresearchoncomparableothercommunitieswhichhaveexperiencedsimilarchallengeswithlarge-diameterPCCP.ThisworkguidedbytheResearchWorkGroupincludedasecondaryresearchphasetoidentifycandidatesofothercommunitiestostudy.Fromalargersetofapproximately40othercommunitiesidentifiedbysecondaryresearchsevenwereselectedforprimaryresearchBaltimoreDallasFairfaxLouisvilleMetropolitanWaterDistrictofSouthernCaliforniaPhoenixandSanDiego.Thesesevenwereselectedbecausetheybestmetthefollowingcriteriawhichhavebeendefined1Significantexposuretolarge-diameterPCCPorahistoryofproblemsbreaksinthepast2ThewaterutilityservesacommunitywithanurbanandsuburbancharacterofsomesimilaritytoWSSCsserviceareaand3TheyrepresentotherlargewaterutilitiesforcomparabilitytoWSSC.Informationfromthesesevenothercommunitieswascollectedintheformofeitherinterviewsorwrittenresponsestothesurveyquestions.Theinterviewguidesurveyincludedmorethan35questionsfocusedonhowtheseothercommunitieshaverespondedtothelarge-diameterPCCPissue.Keyfindingsfromthisworkarenotedthroughoutthereport.TheoverallkeyfindingsaswellastheresearchprofilesreceivedwithpermissiontopublishareincludedintheAppendix.65Seeappendix7.AfortheProcessNarrative.6Seeappendices8.Aand8.B. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320145SECTION2ANALYSISOFTHEPROBLEMANDWSSCSCURRENTAPPROACHAsindicatedaboveinordertorecommendsolutionstoaproblemtheCommitteefirstneededtocometoagreementonadefinitionoftheproblemaswellasanunderstandingofthesufficiencyofWSSCscurrentprogramsforaddressingit.Asreflectedinitems3and4ofitschartertheworkintheseareaswaspredicatedontheideathattheCommitteecouldmakerecommendationsonlyinthecontextofunderstandingthenatureandmagnitudeoftheproblemandtheeffectivenessofWSSCsexistingapproaches.TheCommitteebecamefamiliarwithWSSCexperiencespoliciesproceduresandPCCPmanagementprogramsandwiththephysicaldescriptionsofpipelinecomponentsinformationthatwasessentialtounderstandingboththedynamicsofthesystemanditsfailures.Afterhearingseveraltechnicalpresentationsreadinganddiscussingnumerousreportsissuedbyindustryexperts7andconsideringtheapproachesusedinothersimilarcommunitiesthroughoutthecountrythecharacterofthePCCPpipeshowandwhytheyfailandtherangeofapproachesthatWSSChashistoricallyemployedtopreventbreaksandmitigatetheimpactsofthebreaksthatdooccurbecameclearer.SpecifictopicscoveredincludedthefollowingThevariouspartsthatmakeupthesystemsuchasvalveselbowsandteesTheoverallstructureofthesystemincludingvaryinglengthsanddiametersofpipesectionsphysicalcharacteristicsandlocationsofvalvesjointsandteesThevariousmaterialsthatmakeupthedifferentcomponentsinthesystemsuchassteelconcretePCCPductileandcastironthatthecompositionofthePCCPpipeswithconcretewallsandnumeroussteelbandsandbehaviorofthesteelwirereinforcements8ThehistoryofPCCPandotherpipefailuresandthephysicaldynamicsimpactandcharacteristicsofthosefailuresWSSCsexistinginspectionandmonitoringstrategiesWSSCslong-rangeassetmanagementplanincludingthephysicalassessmentoftheconditionofeachpipesectionmaintenanceandreplacementstrategiesandprogrammedpipesectionreplacementschedulesWSSCsriskmanagementpoliciesandproceduresTheimportanceofandroleofbi-countylanduseandzoningpolicies.2.ADefiningtheScopeandMagnitudeoftheProblemTheCommitteewastaskedearlyonwithunderstandingthescopeandmagnitudeoftheissueofPCCPbreakageandinitiatedthisworkbyexploringthreemaindimensionsofPCCPfailure1theexpectedrateofPCCPbreaks2thephysicaldynamicsofsuchfailuresofthesepipesand3thelikelypotentialimpactsfrompipefailuresincludingpublicsafetyandwelfareandsocialandeconomicimpacts.AProblemWorkgroupwasformedtoexploreandreportouttotheCommitteesothatitcouldreachconsensusonthesethreeaspectsoftheproblem.7SeeAppendix6.DforaBibliographyofselectedresourcesmadeavailableinthecourseofthiswork.8SeeAppendix6.Efordrawingsshowinglined-cylinderandembedded-cylinderPCCPdesign. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320146WithrespecttotheexpectedrateoffailuresbasedoninformationpresentedbytheProblemWorkgroupandWSSCstaffoverthemanymonthsofinquirytheCommitteefoundthattheactualpercentagemileageandsectionsofPCCPpipesatriskarestatisticallysmalllessthan2inotherwordsthefrequencyorprobabilityoffailureisverylow.SomeofthemorepertinentinformationthatsupportsthisunderstandingincludesthefollowingSince1993therehavebeen8PCCPbreaksintheWSSCtransmissionsystemthechartbelowwhichwaspreparedfortheCommitteeinJune2013includesthebestavailableinformationonrecentPCCPbreaksintheWSSCserviceareaAcrossasimilartimeperiodinadditiontotheactualbreakstherehavebeenmorethanadozenpipesectionsthatrequiredbothemergencyandmaintenanceinterventionsmeaningthatbreakswouldhaveoccurredwithouttheinterventionthusdemonstratingtheeffectivenessofWSSCspipemanagementprogramRelativetothesizeofthetransmissionsystemandevenfactoringinthoseavertedbyemergencyinterventionstherateoffailuresince1996isverylow20-25actualandavertedbreaksoutof163milesofPCCPandCastIronpipePeriodicpipeinspectionsrevealthatlessthan2ofthetotalpipesegmentsareatriskforfailureandthereforearerepairedorreplacedfollowingtheinspectionsmorethan98ofthePCCPhassubstantialremainingusefullifeAlthoughasmallpercentageofpipesegmentsareatriskforfailureWSSCcannotpredicteitherthelocationortimingofexactlywhereandwhenabreakwilloccurAspipesagetheriskoffailuregoesupeventhoughtherelationshipisnotperfectsomeolderpipesremainfinewhilesomenewerpipesfailLarge-diameter36andlargerbreakswithintheWSSCserviceareasince1993LocationDatePipeDia.WorkingPresspsiDepthofCraterDiameterofCrater1MeasuredDebrisThrowConnecticutAve.2Mar.20136020390x45HamptonRd.Jan.201154125.03580TolsonRd.Jan.200942RiverRd.4Dec.200866118.6305MeadowsideLn.June200848AllentownRd.Sept.200142110.0103060ClaggettFarm6Mar.1996961151075080-90PalantineDr.Dec.19936012720735115Comments1Cratersarenotcenteredonpipe.Theyaredirectionalfromthepointofbreak.2TheConnecticutAvenuepipedischargeddirectlytowardastream.Ittooksixhourstoshutdownallvalves.Sixtymillion60000000gallonsofwaterwerelost.3EstimatedbasedonaphotofromJuly172013presentationonConnecticutAvenueFailure.4TheRiverRoadmaintookbetween6and7hourstoshutdown.5Theoriginalpipetrenchhadbeenblastedthroughrockthislimitedthecraterdimensions.6TheClaggettFarmpipetookfourhourstoshutdown.Seventymillion70000000gallonsofwaterwerelost.7EstimatedbasedonaphotofromApril232013PowerPointpresentation.WithregardtothephysicaldynamicsofsuchbreakstheimportantunderstandingwasarrivedatthatPCCPtendtofailmoresuddenlyandwithaninitialexplosiveeruptionastructuralfailurethatactsdifferentlythanpipesmadeofothermaterials. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320147ThetermcatastrophiciscommonlyusedwithintheengineeringprofessiontocharacterizethenatureofthestructuralfailureofthesepipesanditisawordthathadbeenusedbyWSSCtoexplainsuchfailurestothepublic.MembersoftheCommitteebelievedusingthetermcatastrophicunintentionallyconveyedtothepublicaperceptionthattheconsequencesofsuchfailureswerecatastrophiccreatingaleveloffearthatisnotnecessarilywarranted.WSSCagreedwiththeCommitteeandthewordwasnolongerusedwithinandsurroundingthisCommitteesworkanditdoesnotappearagaininthisreport.9AccordingtoaWSSCSetbackRecommendationsReportdatedMarch25201110whichsummarizedtheresultsofananalysisbegunin2007andfinishedinearly2008PCCPfailurestendtogeneratethreetypesofphysicalimpacts1.Floodingcausedbythelargeamountofwaterflowingfromthebrokenpipeuntilthewatercanbesafelyturnedoffand2.Debristhrowcausedbythewaterjetstreamresultingfromtheexplosiveforceofafailureand3.Cratersformedasaresultofeach.TheCommitteeunderstandsthepotentialforharmfromthesethreebreakconsequencesallofthemareveryrealaspectsofatypicalPCCPbreak.NeverthelessfromtheinformationprovidedtoitbyWSSCaswellasotherbackgroundmaterialsreviewedtheCommitteecametobelievethatfloodingposesthegreatestconcerndueinparttoitsdurationrelativetotheotherfactorswhereasinitialcrateringanddebristhrowwaterjetarerelativelyimmediateandsuddenimpactsofabreakfloodingwillkeepgoinguntilthewatercanbeturnedoffsafely.FloodingassociatedwithpastWSSCbreaksistypicallymeasuredinthetensofmillionsofgallons.Floodingcanalsobethebroadestoftheimpactsingeographictermsdependingonthetopographyandotherfactorsfloodingwilltypicallyimpactamuchlargerareathantheotherbreakconsequences.Floodinghasbeenoneofthemostsignificantcausesofpropertydamageanddisruptioninanalyzedbreaks.Theflowofwaterfromfloodingisalsoaconcerngiventheroleitplaysincratercreation.Cratersfromrecentbreakshavegenerallymeasuredbetween35and50feetindiameterandaredirectionalfromthepointofthebreaknotcenteredoverthepipe.Thesecratershavecausedpropertydamagetoutilitiesroadsandparkinglots.AlthoughcratersfromrecentbreakshavenotcauseddamagetopeopleorbuildingstheCommitteerecognizesthepotentialforsuchdamageorinjury.Forthereasonsoutlinedaboverelativetofloodingandcratersdebristhrowisseenasthelesserofthethreebreakimpacts.ThisisnottosaythatitdoesnotconcerntheCommitteeonecancertainlyimaginehowdebristhrowcouldcausepersonalinjuryorpropertydamage.Butoverallthereisagreaterconcernwiththepotentialforconsequencesfromflooding.TheCommitteealsocametounderstandthatarangeofsite-andbreak-specificfactorsmightinfluencetheextentofimpactinagivenbreak.Someofthefactorsthatcanhaveanimpactonthemagnitudeofthesephysicalconsequencesincludethephysicalenvironmentofthepipessuchasthetypeofsoilin9TheexceptionsareinthesupportingtextforRecommendation3regardingpubliceducationandcommunicationsandRecommendation11onremovingthespecialConsiderationlanguageintheWSSCDesignManual.10TheBibliographyAppendix6.Dprovidesthefullreferenceforthisreport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320148whichthepipewaslaid.Theextentoffloodingthatcanoccurmayitselfbeimpactedbyavarietyoffactorssuchasthesizeandpressureofthepipethesurroundingtopographythespeedwithwhichthebreaklocationisidentifiedandtheabilitytolocateandturnoffthevalvesthatcontrolwaterflowtothebrokenpipe.InitsexplorationoftheproblemtheCommitteealsodiscussedthepublicsafetyissuesandsocialandeconomicimpactsrelatedtoabreak.Itunderstandsthatthepotentialforagivenbreaktoputpeopleorpropertyinharmswayisinpartafunctionofthelocationofthepipeandawholehostoffactorssuchastopography.TheCommitteefeltitwasimportanttobetterunderstandwherethelarge-diameterPCCParelocatedinrelationtocurrentandplanneddevelopmentandthattopographicalandlocation-specificfactorsmaybeofvaluetoWSSCthecountiesandtotherespectiveOfficesofEmergencyManagement.AccordinglyaninteragencygeospatialmappingexercisewaslaunchedandestablishedtheVisualizationWorkGrouptooverseethework.ThisinteragencymappingeffortresultedinthedevelopmentofaprototypeforaGeographicInformationSystemGISmappingtoolthatisthebasisforoneofthespecificrecommendations.11Themappingeffortalsorevealedthatmanyoftheselarge-diameterPCCParesituatedinrelativeproximitytothebuiltenvironmentandsomearenot.Assuchthereclearlyisthepotentialforharmtopeopleorpropertyfromalarge-diameterPCCPbreak.HowevertheCommitteesprototypetoolalsoaffirmedthatmereproximitytoapipedoesnotnecessarilymeanelevatedrisksincetherearemanyothergeospatialfactorsthatmustbefactoredin.12OveralltheCommitteeseesthattheproblemfacingWSSChasasmuchtodowiththepotentialfrequencyofsuchfailuresasitdoeswiththepotentialconsequencesofsuchfailures.PutanotherwayalthoughthereisthepotentialforseriousconsequenceswhenthesebreaksoccurbecausetheexpectedfrequencyofPCCPfailuresislowtheoverallriskislow.2.BWSSCsPastandPresentMethodforDealingwiththesePipesInadditiontocomingtoanunderstandingofthenatureandscopeoftheproblemoflarge-diameterpipefailuretheCommitteerecognizedtheneedtounderstandwhatWSSCisdoingtopreventPCCPfrombreaking.AccordinglyitwasnecessarytocometoanunderstandingofhowWSSChasaddressedthisissueinthepastandcurrentlyinordertodeterminewhetherchangesoradditionstothecurrentprogramwouldmakesense.InthecourseofitsdeliberationsseveralbriefingsondifferentaspectsofWSSCscurrentandpastprogramwerereceived.ForthisreportWSSCcontributedthefollowingsummarywhichfocusesonitscurrentprogram.132.B.1CurrentInspectionandPCCPRepairProcessIn2006and2007WSSCreorganizeditsinspectionprocessforlargediameterpipesandbegantheprocessesandtechniquesexplainedbelow.ARiskRatingSystemassignedascoreforeachsegmentofpipethisratingbecameknownastheSafetyAnalysisScoreSAS.TheSASwasthe11SeeSection5.ARecommendation1.12ThispointisexplainedingreaterdetailinSection5.A.1.13SeeAppendix6.FfortheHistoryandEvolutionofWSSCsPipeManagementProgram. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320149resultofanempiricalformula14comprisedofseveralriskfactorsincludingOperationalNeedsKnownManufacturingDefectsRepairHistoryDateLastInspectedPipeDiameterandLandUse.ThehighertheSASscorethehighertheassignedrisk.TheSASwasthebasisfortheorderofinspectionmakingupthefive-yearplan.Theinspectionprocessfollowedafive-yearplanupdatedannuallythatinspectedthe77milesof48-inchandlargerdiameterpipelinesapproximatelyeverysixyears.Theinspectionofthe77milesofpipewascompletedin2013withafiberopticmonitoringsysteminstalledineachpipethissystemknowasAcousticFiberOpticAFOtechnologyisdescribedindetailinthenextsubsection.InFY13roboticinspectionsoftheadditional68milesof36-and42-inchdiameterlinesbegan.AlsobeginninginFY14there-inspectionprocesscontinuedforthe77milesof48-inchandlargerpipelineswithpriorityestablishedbyfeedbackfromAFOmonitoring.Theinspectionprocessbeginswithinternalcoordinationwithoperatingelementsinordertoconfirmthatoperationsandmaintenanceactivitiescansupporttheintendedplan.Ifcurrentoperationscannotsupportlossofserviceinspectionschedulesareadjusted.TheinspectionitselfbeginswithutilizingtheSmartBalltolocateanyleakswithinthepipelinetobeinspectedthatwouldotherwisenotbediscernabletotheinspectors.TheSmartBallidentifiesleaksandtheirlocationsothatcrewscanlocatethemandensurerepairsarecompletedbeforethepipelineisputbackintoservice.Thepipelineisthendewateredandmannedteamsenterthepipelinetoconducttheinspection.Stepsincludepipesectionnumberingvisualinspectionandsoundingaswellassonicultrasonicinspectionsthatareverysimilartoinspectionsconductedsincetheinceptionoftheinspectionprogram.Electromagneticfieldtestingisconducted.Resultsofthetestingareanalyzedtoestablishabaselinenumberofbrokenwiresforeachpipesegment.FiniteelementanalysistechniquesareutilizedtoestimatetheyieldandultimatestrengthlimitsintermsofthenumberofbrokenwiresforeachindividualdesignclassofPCCPsegmentswithinapipeline.Segmentsthatarefoundtobeinacriticalstatearerepairedorreplacedwhilethepipelineisoutofservice.FinallybeforepipesareputbackintoservicepermanentAFOcablesanddataacquisitioncomputersareplacedifnotalreadythereforuseincontinuousmonitoringofwirebreakactivityuntilthenextinspection.Lessthan2ofthepipesegmentsinspectedusingthesethreemethodsarefoundtoneedsomeformofrehabilitation.OnaverageWSSChasreplaced2pipesegmentseach16feetlongpermileandrepaired3pipesegmentspermilewithcarbonfiber.Thecostofreplacingapipesegmentis80000andrepairingusingcarbonfiberis70000atanaveragecostpermileforreplacedrepairedsegmentsof375000.ItcostsWSSCabout150000permiletoinspectitsPCCPinfrastructure.Toinspectthesmaller36-and42-inchdiameterpipelinesroboticinspectionsarebeingused.Thedifferencesfortheseinspectionsaretwo-fold.FirstalthoughWSSCwillreducetheoperatingpressureinthepipelineitwillnotfullydewaterthepipelinehumanentryintothepipewillnotoccur.Withrobotsthevisualinspectionwillusehigh-definitioncameraswhiletheelectromagneticinspectionwillbedonefromatowedpackageofinstruments.Theseconddifferenceisthatthesonicultrasonicsoundingwillnotbedone.Thecostofroboticinspections14SeeAppendix6.GforSASscoreandempiricalformula. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201410willbe80000permile.2.B.2FiberOpticMonitoringAsnotedabovepermanentAFOcablesareplacedinthepipelinesasthelaststepinthecurrentinspectionprocessbeforeputtingthepipelinebackintoservice.AttheconclusionoftheFY11programyearover50milesof48-inchandlargerdiameterpipelineshadbeeninspectedrehabilitatedandfittedwithAFOmonitoringsystems.Attheendof2013all77milesof48-inchandlargerdiameterpipelineshaveAFOmonitoringsystemsinstalled.AFOmonitoringsystemsallowWSSCthroughitsconsultantscomputerizedsystemanddataanalysistomonitorwirebreakactivityinPCCPpipelinesthatareinservice.Whenawirebreaksasoundiscreatedandtheresultingmechanicalsoundwavepropagatesawayfromthebreak.Thismechanicalwaveinteractswiththeelectromagneticlightwavethatismovingthroughthefiberopticcable.ThisinteractionissensedandfilteredbythedataacquisitioncomputersystemandacorrespondingsignalutilizingGlobalPositioningSystemGPSlocatestheoriginofthewirebreak.ThecomputerassignsawirebreaktoaspecificpipesectionnumberandnotificationismadetoconsultantanalystsandWSSCstaff.SinceeachpipesegmenthasanestablishedbaselinekeepingtrackofthestatusofthewirebreakactivitybecomesabookkeepingexerciseandallowstheanalystsandWSSCstafftodecidewhatifanycorrectiveactionshouldbetakenonapipesegmentasitapproachesitsyieldandultimatestrengthlimits.Thesystemhasbeentestedandhasproventobeaviablewarningsystem.PerhapsthemostwidelyknownexampleoccurredinlateJune2010.TheAFOsystemrespondedtoacascadeofwirebreakactivitythatconcernedtheWSSCstaff.ThisledtothedecisiontomodifythePCCPInspectionProgramschedulethenunderwayandtakethe96-inchpipelinewiththewirebreakactivityoutofserviceunderemergencyconditions.Whenthesixteen-footpipelinesectionwasremovedoverthe4thofJulyholidaythevisualsignsofincipientfailurewereobvious.TheAFOsystemworked.Whilethecostofthisoccurrencewasrelativelyhighapproximately500000itwasarelativebargainwhencomparedtothecostsassociatedwithhavingtoreacttothe66-inchRiverRoadbreakoverChristmas2008.RiverRoadcost1.7millionforrepairsaloneledtothelossofmillionsofgallonsofwaterandputpeopleinseriousjeopardy.WSSCsdecisiontotakethe96-inchpipelineoutofservicesavedatleastanestimated1.2millioninrepaircostsandaddressedapotentiallyimminentandveryseriousrisktopublicsafety.TheincidentaboveiswidelyknownbutitisnottheonlypipelinewhereAFOhasprovenitself.TheInspectionProgramisonewherereactiontoday-to-dayactivitiesmayforcechangestoplannedinspectionactivities.OperationalrequestsforaninvestigationofasinkholenecessitatedchangesintheFY12program.Therewasa96-inchPCCPinthevicinityofthesinkholethoughnotleakingandnotthecauseofthesinkholeandexploratoryexcavationsnecessitateddewateringthepipelineforsafetyreasons.Coincidentallythissamepipelinehadbeenexperiencingsomeincreasingwirebreakactivitysomedistanceawayfromthesinkholeinvestigation.Becausethepipelinewasalreadyoutofserviceforthesinkholeinvestigationtheannualinspectionplanwasadjustedtotakeadvantageoftheunplannedworkandthepipelinedewateringwasenlargedtocoverthesegmentwiththewirebreakactivity.Theinvestigationconcludedthatthepipesegmentwithincreasingwirebreakactivitywasinastateofincipientfailureandneededreplacement.Thiswasdonepriortothepipelinebeingputbackintoserviceattheconclusionofthesinkholeinvestigation.ThusanotherpotentiallydangerouspipesegmentidentifiedbyAFOwasdealtwith WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201411safely.ThecosttosupplyandinstallanAFOmonitoringsysteminatypicalsix-milelengthofPCCPisabout764000orapproximately128000permileAFOcablingat12.12perfootandonemonitoringcomputerat380000.AnnualAFOmonitoringcostspermileisapproximately13000.WhiletheAFOsystemworkswellitisnotfailsafe.Breaksmayoccuronpipesthatarebeingmonitoredforseveralreasonsincluding1thewireswerentsufficientlyprestressedsoastheybreaktheyfailtogeneratethepingthattheAFOsystemisdesignedtodetectand2thesystemrequiresfulltimeelectricalpowerandcommunicationconnectionsapoweroutageorabreachinthecommunicationlinewillinterrupttheAFOsystemsabilitytodetectandorreportwirebreakactivity.Neverthelesswithinspectionsandotherevolvingmonitoringpracticestheabilitytodetectpipedeteriorationandmaintenanceprioritieswillcontinuetoimprove.Anotherknownlimitationofthecurrentstate-of-the-artPCCPinspectiontechnologyandmethodsistheinabilityduringtheinspectiontoidentifyexistingwirebreaksinfactory-fabricatedoutletslocatedwithintwofeetorlessoftheendofapipesegmentasdemonstratedbytheMarch2013ConnecticutAvenuebreak.WSSCisnowresearchingnewtechniquestoinspecttheconditionofthesesegmentsthatwillbepilotedduringFY2014.2.CAreAdditionalSolutionsAdvisableFollowingseveralworksessionsnumerouspresentationsanddiscussionsontheextensivevolumeofinformationmadeavailabletothemCommitteemembersconsideredwhetheradditionalriskreductionmeasureswouldbeadvisable.IstheremorethatcanandshouldbedonetomanagePCCPtoincreasebreakpreventiontoimprovemitigationofproblemsresultingfromaPCCPbreakandtoimprovethemanagementoftheeventThisquestionwasmeanttobridgetheCommitteesunderstandingofhowsignificantaproblemwearedealingwithontheonehandversusthesufficiencyofWSSCsexistingprogramforaddressingitontheother.OnepartofthisequationisCommitteemembersperspectivesonWSSCsexistingpipemanagementprogram.Thisincludedconsideringwhetherallthatcouldbedonetominimizeriskoffailureormitigateconsequencesisbeingdoneandwhetherthebestavailablepracticesoftheindustryarebeingemployed.ThisalsoincludedconsiderationofwhethertheCommitteeidentifiedspecificareasofpolicyorpracticethatitbelievedshouldbereviewedimprovedonandifsowhy.TheCommitteefoundthatWSSChasestablishedacomprehensivemonitoringandinspectionprogramtofacilitatetherepairorreplacementofPCCP.CommitteemembershaveaveryhighlevelofconfidenceinthisprogramindeedasthenewAFOmonitoringsystemisbecomingmoreprevalentthroughoutthesystemtheyconcludedthatasystemicpolicysolutionisnotnecessarybutdidfeelthereareareasforwhichtheycouldmakerecommendations. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201412AnotherkeypartofthisequationistheCommitteesperspectiveonrisk.Certaininfrastructuresuchasroadsgasmainspowerdistributionlinesandwatermainsarenecessarytosupportdevelopmentandmustbelocatednearthepopulationitserves.Inherentrisksfromtheseandotherfeaturesofthebuiltenvironmentaretoleratedatcertainlevelswhichmaydifferdependingonthecommunitybearingtherisk.Peopledriveonandlocatetheirhomesandbusinessesnearroadswhileacceptingtheriskofbothautoandpedestrianaccidents.Houseslocatedneargasandelectricallinesaresometimesconstructedofcombustiblematerials.Largetreesshadeourhomesandlineourtrailsyetweaccepttheriskoffallinglimbsinmanyofthoseareas.Thisdoesnotmeanthatweacceptandlivewithalloftherisk.Indeedwetrimdeadbranchesfromtreesandremovesometreesentirelyinthenameofpreventingfallinglimbs.Althoughwetakeriskseverytimewedriveavehicleweascitizensreducetheriskbywearingourseatbeltsanddrivingresponsiblyandaspolicymakerswepasslawssuchasrequiringseatbeltsorprohibitingtextingwhiledrivinginordertoreducetherisks.Andweputsmokedetectorsandsprinklersystemsinhomesandbuildings.SimilarlyWSSCspipemonitoringinspectionandmaintenanceprogramrespondstopiperisks.Thisalsodoesnotmeanthatweallhavethesametoleranceforrisk.Indeedsomepartieswillseeacertainlevelofriskasacceptablewhileotherswillfinditunacceptable.Theimplicationforpolicymakingisthatwemustunderstandandappropriatelyaddresstherisktolerancelevelsofthoseimpactedinorderforourrisk-reductionpoliciestobesuccessful.Noneoftheseexamplesfallingtreelimbscaraccidentsetc.areofferedwithanysuggestionthattheirriskprofilesaresimilartothoseoflarge-diameterPCCP.Theyareprovidedmerelytosuggestthatwefaceallsortsofrisksinourbuiltenvironmentandwehavetodecidewhatifanythingtodoinresponse.Thekeypointwhenitcomestoriskisfindingtherightbalancerecognizingthatitisnotreasonableorpracticaltoeliminateriskentirely.Ratherwemustunderstandmeasureandappropriatelymanagetherisksassociatedwithsuchconditions.TheCommitteesviewregardingthevalueofadditionalriskreductionmeasuresforPCCPthusrestsonseveralkeyconsiderationsthelowprobabilityofPCCPfailuresthehighlevelofconfidenceinWSSCscurrentapproachthepotentialforsignificantconsequencesfromPCCPfailuresandtheperspectiveoutlinedaboveonriskandrisktolerance.ThatsomeadditionalactionsareadvisablemaybeafoundationalconclusionofthisCommitteebutitdoesnotprovidedirectionregardingwhatspecificallymightmakesensetorecommend.TosupportthisworkmembersengagedinaprocessofdevelopingandassessingpotentialadditionalresponsesasoutlinedinthefollowingSections3and4ofthisreport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201413SECTION3IDENTIFICATIONOFPOTENTIALSOLUTIONS3.AWhyExploreAdditionalSolutionsThechartercallsforthedevelopmentofarobustsetofalternativesolutionsforpreventingandmitigatinganyidentifiedrisksassociatedwithlarge-diameterwatermainbreaks.TheCommitteediscussedthatWSSChastheresponsibilityofmanagingitspipestoavoidbreakageandthatasagroupoflaypeopletheycouldnotrelieveWSSCofthatresponsibility.TheCommitteealsodiscussedatmanytimesthroughouttheprocessthatanypolicyshiftshouldbebasedonasoundriskanalysisandacompleteunderstandingofthecostsandbenefitsofanyproposedactiontobetaken.AccordinglythecharterfurthercallsfortheevaluationofthecostsandbenefitsoftheseidentifiedalternativesandforthedeterminationofthesetofsolutionstobeputforwardasatoolkitorportfolioofrecommendedsolutionstotheWSSCCommission.Itsimportanttobeveryclearonthegoalofexploringadditionalresponsesforpreventingormitigatingtheimpactoflargediameterwatermainbreaks.AsoutlinedaboveinSection2thereisafundamentalunderlyingconcernsurroundingthefailureoflarge-diameterPCCPnamelythatevenifthefrequencyorprobabilityoffailureislowthepotentialforharmtopeopleorpropertyisreal.Theexistenceofsomelevelofriskhoweversmallandthedesiretolowertherisktothecommunityisthebasisforconsideringadditionalpotentialresponses.AsdiscussedinSection2.Contheproblemeliminatingtheriskcompletelyisnotandshouldnotbetheimmediateprimarypolicyorprogrammaticgoal.RatherthegoalofadditionalresponsesrecommendedbythisCommitteeistoreducetheriskstopeoplepropertyandtheenvironmentassociatedwithlarge-diameterPCCPwatermainbreaks.3.BOverarchingPrinciplesThreeguidingprinciplesregardingpotentialsolutionsemergedearlyintheCommitteeswork1thatatoolkitofresponseswouldbeneededversusasinglepolicyresponse2thatthecostorburdenofsuchresponseswouldneedtobeappropriatetothelowlevelofriskofthisissueandtobesuccessful3thateffectiveinteragencycollaborationwouldbecriticaltosupportboththecreationandimplementationofsuchatoolkit.3.B.1ToolkitConceptThisCommitteesworkbeganinresponsetoawell-intentionedWSSCpolicythe80-footsetbackthatwasperceivedtobeasingleunilateralpolicyresponsethatonlyaddressednewdevelopmentandgiventhelowprobabilityoflargediameterpipebreakageplacedanundueburdenonthedevelopmentcommunityandfailedtotakeintoaccountCountylandusegoals.ThisCommitteereachedanoverarchingandveryimportantconclusionthatnoonepolicycanbedevelopednorshouldbedevelopedtoaddressthepotentialforharmcausedbythefailureofPCCPwatermains.Throughitsdeliberationitbecameabsolutelyclearthataonesizefitsallsolutionisneitherwarrantedefficientcost-effectivenorpractical.RatheratoolkitwouldbemoreappropriatewithsegmentedandprioritizedpolicyapproachesthatreflectThevarietyofsituationsinwhichthesepipesexist WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201414ThevariablelevelsofriskthatcorrelatewiththePCCPconditionsavailablemonitoringorinspectiondataandsimilarfactorsthatareuniquetoeachpipesegmentandTheextenttowhichafailurewithinaspecificsegmentislikelyandwouldbeexpectedtoimpacthumanlifepropertyandtheenvironmentbothcurrentandfuture.Inshortanappropriatetoolkitofpolicieswilltakeintoconsiderationmultiplefactorsincludingtheconditionandnatureofthepipeitselfthephysicalenvironmentinwhichthepipeexistsandthenatureofhumanactivityanddevelopmentabovetheground.3.B.2SolutionsAppropriatetotheProblemEarlyinitsdeliberationstheCommitteeruledoutbroad-brushsystemicpolicychangessuchasthe80-footsetbackthatbroughtthisgrouptogether.TheCommitteeagreedthatthecostorburdenofrecommendedresponsesshouldreflecttheriskprofileofthisproblem.Giventherelativelylowlevelofriskofthesefailuresthesearchfornewpotentialsolutionshasbeendrivenbyadesiretofindsolutionsthatnotonlywouldreducetheriskfurtherbutalsowoulddosoinamannerwithappropriateandreasonablecosts.Inanycaseapolicyshouldnotbeimposedunlesstheextentoftheriskhasbeenassessedandunderstoodandthecostsbenefitsandimplicationsofapotentialsolutionareunderstood.3.B.3TheNecessityofCollaborationThisissueislargerthanWSSCandassuchacollaborativeapproachwillbenecessarytoaddressitfully.ThetoolkitneedstoincludeideasthatwouldbeownedimplementedbyotherpartiesnotexclusivelyWSSCevenifthecharterwastosupportWSSCseffortsataddressingthisissue.Sincevariousstakeholdershaveexpertiseinanumberoftheareasthatareimportanttocreatingandsustainingagoodqualityoflifeallstakeholdersneedtocollaborativelycreateandimplementthepoliciesassociatedwithadifferentiatedapproachthatprioritizescertainareas.3.CTheScopeandCategorizationofPotentialResponsesPotentialimprovementsorresponsestoPCCPmanagementdivideintothreebroadcategoriesasdesignedbytheSolutionsWorkGroupA.PreventionReducingtheNumberorFrequencyofBreaksB.MitigationReducingtheImpactofBreaksC.ResponseReducingDisruptionfromBreaksEachofthesecategoriesaddressesacomponentofthelargerissueofbreakssuchthattogetherthesecategoriescovertheentireproblem.Putsimplyyoucanreducetheproblemsassociatedwithlarge-diameterpipefailuresbyReducingthenumberofbreaksthatoccurpreventionMitigatingtheimmediatephysicalimpactofthebreaksthatdohappenmitigationandReducingtheensuingdisruptiontodailylifethatcanalsoaccompanyabreakresponse. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201415ThesebroadcategoriesofpotentialsolutionscanbefurtherbrokenapartintosubcategorieseachofwhichrepresentsamorefocusedareaofinquiryPreventionAincludeslookingatwaystobothmonitoranddetectproblemsaswellaswaystopreventpotentialbreaksfrombecomingactualbreaks.Inthepreventionareathereisalsoaquestionofprioritizationhowtoensurethatanymonitoringdetectioninvestmentsorrepairreinforcementinvestmentsarefocusedonthoseareaswherepipebreakswouldhavethegreatestimpacts.MitigationBmustlookatthethreedifferenttypesofimpactsassociatedwithbreaksfloodingcratersandexplosiveforcewaterjetanddebristhrow.15Thisisvalidtotheextentthattheremaybeparticularresponsesthatonlyaddressoneoftheseimpactse.g.valve-relatedideasthatmayimpactflooding.AswiththepreventionsectionthereisalsoanimportantcrosscuttingissueinthiscasehavingtodowithBuildingandLandUseRulesandRegulations.Thisreflectstheideathattheremaybepolicyapproacheswiththepotentialtomitigatetheimpactsofbreaksthatareindependentofthespecificimpactinotherwordsapproachesthatcouldmitigateanyoralloftheimpactsofabreak.Totheextentthatsuchcrosscuttingpolicyapproachesformitigationmaynecessitatesomedegreeofcross-agencycoordinationforsuccessfulimplementationtherearerecommendationsforensuringtherightlevelofinteragencycollaborationinthedevelopmentprocess.ResponseCcanbedividedintosubissuesthataddressspecifictypesofdisruptioncausedwhentheselargepipesactuallybreak.Akeypriorityistherestorationofwaterserviceasthelossofserviceassociatedwithabreakisdisruptivetoresidentsandbusinesses.Asecondiskeepingelectedofficialsandcommunitiesimpactedbythebreakinformedsincenotknowingwhatisgoingoncanbedisruptiveinandofitself.Athirdaspectisaddressingthedisruptionthatcanbecausedtotrafficandpublicserviceseitherduetothebreakitselfanditsimpactse.g.floodingortotheworkthatmustbedonetorestoreservice.Aswiththeothercategoriesitisalsovalidtothinkaboutcrosscuttingresponsesregardingemergencyresponseandcoordinationthatwouldbeabletoreduceallofthesemorespecificformsofdisruptionassociatedwithabreak.Allofthecategoriesandsub-issuesintheframeworkrepresentareaswhereadditionalresponsescouldmakeadifferenceeitherthroughreducingthechancesofabreakoccurringandtheresultingriskstopeoplepropertyortheenvironmentorbylesseningtheassociateddisruptiontodailylife.TheframeworkpresentedaboveguidedtheCommitteeasitsoughttodeveloppotentialresponses.Manyoftheideasgeneratedintheprocesswereseenaspotentialavenuestoconsiderbutseveralwerequicklyrejectedasimpracticaloruneconomic.ItsalsoimportanttonotethatmanyverytechnicalideaswereputforwardbuttheCommitteedidntfeelqualifiedtodelvetoodeeplyintosomeoftheme.g.emergingmonitoringtechnologies.Inthecourseofitsdeliberationsfocuseddiscussionsineachoftheseareaswerecarriedoutreviewinganddiscussingthepotentialideasinordertodeterminewhichifanyrepresentedthestrongestcandidatesforrecommendations.Thesectionthatfollowsoutlinestherangeoffactorsthatguidedthereviewandassessmentoftheseideas.Theultimateresultofthiscreativeanddeliberativeworkinandacrossthethreecategoriesofpotentialsolutionsisthesetofrecommendationsthatrepresenttheheartofthisreport.15EachofthethreebreakimpactsareoutlinedinSection2.Aofthereport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201416SECTION4INTERESTSATSTAKE4.AImportanceofStakeholderInterestsAswithanypolicyissuemultiplestakeholdershaveavarietyofspecificinterestsinthisissue.Theseinterestsarenotalwaysalignedandinfactmaybeindirectconflict.Thereforepolicymakersmustmaketherighttradeoffsthatstriketherightbalance.TheWSSCproposalaspromulgatedoriginallywasviewedbymanyotherstakeholdersasfurtheringafewinterestsattoogreatacostwhenotherinterestsweretakenintoaccount.InrecognitionofthiscentraltothecharterofthisCommitteewastheideathatthevaryinginterestswouldneedtobeclearlyarticulatedandusedtoassessthestrengthorweaknessofanypotentialsolutionsidentifiedinthehopethattheCommitteewouldbeabletoidentifypotentialsolutionsthatmoreeffectivelybalancedthedesiretoreducetherisksassociatedwiththefailureofthesepipeswiththeotherimportantgoalsofthetwocountiesandotherkeystakeholders.SpecificallyClause5ofthecharteroutlinedthatasapartoftheCommitteesworkitwouldbeimportanttoidentifythefullsetofstakeholderintereststhatwouldneedtobefactoredintotheconsiderationofanypotentialsolutionformitigatinganyrisksassociatedwithlargediameterwatermainsincludingforinstancepublicsafetyoperationalrequirementspropertyrightswaterratesandthelandusepoliciesgoalsandmasterplansofbothcounties.Clause7furtherstatedthatanycostbenefitanalysisofalternativesolutionsidentifiedwouldneedtotakeintoconsiderationthedegreeofriskandbalancesocialeconomicandfiscalstakeholderinterests.164.BWhatInterestsMustBeConsideredinRespondingtothisIssueThevarietyofinterestsatstakeinthisissuecanbegroupedintoafewcategoriesThefirstcategoryregardsthesafetyandqualityoflifeofthecountiesresidentswhichareputatriskintheeventoflarge-diameterwatermainbreak.Themorespecificinterestsare1.Publicsafety.Publicsafetyispotentiallyputatriskwheneverlarge-diameterPCCPwatermainsbreakgiventhesuddenexplosivemannerinwhichtheyfail.TheCommitteesfocusonreducingtheincidenceofbreaksbreakpreventionanditsfocusonreducingtheimpactsofbreaksimpactmitigationfloodingcrateranddebristhrowwaterjetstemfromthisinterestinkeepingresidentsoutofharmsway.Theexplorationofsolutionsforbothnewandexistingdevelopmentscenariosalsoreflectsthisinterest.2.Qualityoflife.ThequalityoflifeoftheresidentsispotentiallyputatriskwhenapipebreaksbecauseofthelossofwaterserviceassociatedwithabreakandeventhethreatofalossofwaterserviceaswasdemonstratedinPrinceGeorgesCountyin2013.Traffictie-upsandeconomiccostsassociatedwithdisruptionstobusinessesreflectotherimpactstothequalityoflife.Asecondcategoryrelatestotherespectiveauthorityandinterestsofthevariouspublicandprivatestakeholders.SpecificallytheCountiesaremandatedbyStatelawtoestablishlandusepoliciesandplanswhicharedevelopedtomeethousingandjobsneedstomaintainahealthyandvigorous16TheProcessNarrativeAppendix7.AprovidesadescriptionofwhenandhowinterestswereconsideredintheCommitteeswork. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201417economyensureeffectiveandefficienttransportationandprovideavarietyofimportantpublicsafetyandwelfareservicesamongotherthings.WSSCischargedwithprovidingsafeeffectiveandreliablewaterandsewerservicetoservethepopulationsoftheCounties.Inestablishingsoundpoliciesthereasonableneedsobjectivesandresponsibilitiesofallneedtoberecognized.HerethereareamultitudeofspecificinterestswhichspeakstotheinterplaybetweeninfrastructureinthiscasewaterinfrastructurewithotheraspectsoflifeandwellbeingintheCounties.Thevastmajorityoftheseissueshavetodowithlanduse.Thespecificinterestsinclude3.TheabilityoftheCountiestomeettheirrespectivelandusegoalsandplans.BothCountieshavearticulatedveryclearmasterplanspredicatedonimportantenvironmentalconsiderationsneedsforhousingneedsforjobsaswellasneedsfortransportationfacilitiesschoolsrecreationfacilitieshospitalsetc.AnimportantelementofthefuturedevelopmentpatternsofbothCountiesemphasizesmixedusetransit-orienteddevelopmentanddevelopmentofanurbancharacterinordertoreducesprawlandprotectenvironmentalresources.4.TheabilityoftheCountiestocontinuetogroweconomically.Bothcountieshaveaninterestincontinuedgrowththroughnewjobshousingservicesetc.whicharerealizedinpartthroughdevelopmentandredevelopmentprojects.Thegrowththatcomeswithnewdevelopmentsupportsthetaxbasewhichinturnenablesthecountiestoprovidethesortofservicesthatmaketheircommunitiesattractiveplacestolive.Apositivecycleiscreatedwhengrowthhelpssupportahighqualityoflifethatinturnpromotesadditionalgrowth.5.Theabilityofcurrenthigh-profiledevelopmentprojectsinthecountiestomoveforward.Therearenumerouslargeprojectsthatareeitheralreadyunderdevelopmentorimmediatelyonthehorizon.ThecountieshaveaninterestinensuringthattheseprojectsarenotbeingheldupinanywaywhilethisissueisbeingconsideredandresolvedbyWSSC.ThereisnosuggestionherethatthereareprojectsbeingheldupbyWSSCpendingthisissue.ThatsaidtheinterestinensuringtheseprojectscontinuetomoveforwardhasbeenarticulatedasadirectextensionsubcomponentoftheCountiesinterestincontinuingtoattractandsupportnewdevelopment.6.Propertyrightsandpropertyvalues.Propertyownersanddeveloperswithexistingorplanneddevelopmentinthevicinityoflarge-diameterPCCPwanttoensurethatthevalueoftheirinvestmentisnotcompromisedbyanypotentialpolicyresponseonthisissue.Ifdeveloperswerelimitedbyforinstanceasetbackrequirementfornewdevelopmentbuiltadjacenttothesepipesthatwouldlikelybeseenasaconstraintonpropertyrightsthatpossiblyrisestothelevelofataking.Relatedtothisistheinterestinpreservingandprotectingthepropertyvaluesfortheownersofexistingpropertiesthathappentolieinthevicinityoftheselargediameterpipes.Thisyieldsconcernsregardingnotonlythetypesofpotentialresponsesthatareonthetableforconsiderationbutalsohowtheentireissueoftherisksofpipefailurearepositionedandportrayedinthecommunity.7.Keepingthewaterflowing.ResidentsandbusinessesacrosstheCountiesdependonWSSCtoprovideasafeandreliablesupplyofdrinkingwaterthisisWSSCsmission.AnypotentialresponsethatwouldputWSSCsabilitykeepthewaterflowingatriskevenifitcouldreducetheincidenceorconsequencesofbreakscouldwellbeviewedbyWSSCanditscustomersasunfavorable.Thisspeakstojusthowimportantasafeandreliablewatersupplyistoourhealthandqualityoflife.Athirdcategoryofinterestsregardsthecostorburdenofanypotentialresponse.8.Costsshouldbeminimized.Allotherthingsbeingequalcostsshouldbeminimized.Costscouldbethosebornebyratepayerstaxpayersdevelopersoranyotherstakeholder.Costsinclude WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201418directfiscalcostsaswellasothertypesofburdenswhetherornotadirectfinancialcostsperse.9.Costsshouldbeborneequitably.Thecostsorburdenofanyproposedsolutionshouldbeborneinamannerthatisequitable.Solutionsthatplaceanunfaircostorburdenonanyonepartye.g.developersWSSCsratepayerstaxpayersareseenasunfavorable.Anycostsorburdensdeemednecessarytosufficientlyaddressthisissueshouldbebornebytherelevantstakeholdersinamannerthatisfair.4.CWhatConflictsAmongInterestsMustbeBalancedIdeallytheresponsetothisissuewouldbalancealloftheseinterestsperfectlybutthatisunrealisticinasituationwithsomanylegitimateperspectiveswithsometimes-divergentinterests.Forinstancethe80-footsetbackpolicywaspromulgatedinitiallybyWSSCintheinterestofprotectingpublicsafetywhilethepolicyifimplementedmayindeedhaveadvancedthepublicsafetyinterestitwasseenbyothersasbeinginconflictwithcertainofthecountieslandusegoalse.g.thegoalofencouragingbuild-to-the-streetdevelopmentofanurbancharacter.Likewisewhilethewholesalereplacementoflarge-diameterPCCPclearlywouldgofarasapreventionstrategythecostswouldbepotentiallystaggeringandconflictswithwatersystemoperationscouldputatrisktheprovisionofareliablewatersupply.AstheCommitteedevelopedandassessedpotentialsolutionsituseditscollectivejudgmenttoidentifythesubsetofsolutionsmostalignedwithitsconclusionsregardingthenatureandscopeoftheproblemandofferingthebestoverallprofileofbenefitsversuscosts.Itsimportanttounderstandthatthiswasadeliberativeprocessnotadeeplyanalyticaloneinthesensethattherehasbeenforinstancenoanalysisofthecosttoimplementtheserecommendations.Ratherthroughthedeliberativeprocesstheyweighedtheappropriatenessofthesolutionsandtheirperceivedcostsandbenefitsbeforemakingitsfinalrecommendations. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201419SECTION5RECOMMENDATIONSSection5.ACrossCuttingRecommendations5.A.1IntroductionAlthoughthemajorityoftherecommendationsdealwithelementsofthesolutionsframeworkreducingbreaksmitigatingimpactsreducingdisruptionthreeoftherecommendationsaremoreoverarchingcuttingacrossthesemorespecificcategories.ThisreflectstheCommitteesinterestinacoupleofcriticalcapabilitiesthatwhendevelopedwillinturnenableseveralofthemorespecificrecommendationsthatcomelaterinthisreport.TheCommitteesupportsanoverallapproachinitsrecommendationsthatdirectsattentionandresourcestowardsthecircumstancesorplaceswheretheriskofabreakandortheriskofconsequencesfromabreakarehigher.InthistypeofpolicyapproachpreventionandmitigationeffortsincludingmonitoringinvestmentsandrepairreplacementeffortsarenotspreaduniversallyacrossthecountiesservedbyWSSCoracrossthepipesystembutratheraretargetedatareaswheremonitoringandinspectionresultsindicatethatabreakmaybemorelikelyandwherethelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamagemaybehigher.Thedistinctionbetweenthetwopartsofthisequationareveryrealandmeaningfulwithonedriverbeingthedeterminationthatapipemaybeatriskthoughapiperiskassessmentandanotherdriverbeingthedeterminationthataparticularareaisathigherriskofconsequencesshouldabreakoccur.Thisassessmentshouldbebasedonthenatureandconditionofthepipethephysicalenvironmentinwhichthepipesexistsuchastopographyandothergeographicconditionsandthenatureofthenaturalandbuiltenvironmentabovethegroundsuchasthepresenceofcriticalinfrastructurepopulationdensityoroccupancybyat-riskpopulations.Thisbeliefinaprioritizedapproachisnotuniquetobreakpreventionmitigationorresponseitisacrosscuttingideathatshouldinfluencethestrategyinallthreeareas.Committeemembersdonotbelievethetoolsneededtosupportthesituationalanddifferentiateddecisionmakingthataprioritizedpolicyapproachrequirestakingallinterestsintoconsiderationarecurrentlyinplace.AlthoughWSSCdoeshaveacurrentapproachforprioritizingitspreventioneffortstheabovethegroundfactorsarenotconsideredwithsufficientnuanceorweighting.TheCommitteeacknowledgesthatWSSCisbestequippedtomakeresponsedecisionswhenlookingatthepipesaloneandshouldcontinuetodosoinresponsetoanalertfromthemonitoringsystembuttheCommitteeisjustasinterestedinhavingthosedecisionsconsidertheabovethegroundfactorsaswell.Thecrosscuttingrecommendationsinthissectionareintendedtoprovideaplatformforaprioritizedpolicyapproach. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014205.A.2SpecificCrossCuttingRecommendationsRecommendation1CompletethedevelopmentofthesetofmapswhichtheCommitteeinitiatedasaprototypethatoverlaymultipleGeographicInformationSystemGISlayerswithWSSCsystemdatatohelppolicy-makersvisualizetherelationshipbetweenthesepipesandthebuiltandnaturalenvironmentVisualizationMapping.InordertobetterunderstandandtovisualizetheinterplayofthePCCPbelowthegroundwithdevelopmentpatternsabovethegroundtheCommitteeestablishedaVisualizationWorkGroup.ThisworkgroupcreatedaprototypefordevelopingasetofmapsthatoverlaysmultipleGISlayerswithWSSCsystemdatatohelppolicy-makersdifferentiateamongthevariouslevelsofpublicriskwithinthesystem.Thepreferredapproachwouldtakeintoaccountbothexistingandfuturedevelopmentneedsuniquetopographicalorgeologicalcharacteristicsandothergeospatialfeaturesthatwouldhelpeveryoneunderstandwhichareasmaybeathigherriskasaresultoflarge-diameterPCCPinrelationtocurrentandplannedabovethegrounddevelopment.InadditiontoenablingpolicymakerstoseetherelationshipbetweenPCCPandthebuiltenvironmentitcouldalsohelpbringattentiontoaspectsofthenaturalenvironmente.g.Class1streamswhereaPCCPbreakmayresultinahigherlevelofenvironmentalimpact.Withthesupportofthisworkgroupandtheprototypetheydevelopedasegmentationmethodologyandframeworkwasdeveloped.TheCommitteerecommendsthatthisworkbecompleted.AtthesametimeitacknowledgedWSSCsconcernthatcompletionofafunctionalandreliabletoolmayimplicateaconflictbetweenpublictransparencyandsecurityconcerns.ForexampledependingonthelevelofdetaildisseminatedtothepublictheVisualizationMappingwithoutthepubliceducationassetforthinRecommendation3couldyieldanunintentionalpublicperceptionthatthelikelihoodandconsequencesofPCCPfailurearetrulydireincontrasttotheCommitteesbeliefthatmereproximitytoPCCPisnotacauseforalarm.Thepublicdisseminationofsuchmapscouldalsocreateunintendedsecurityissues.TheappropriatefederalstateandlocalstakeholdersshouldsupportWSSCinreconcilingthistensionbeforeanypublicdisseminationofafullyfunctionaltooloccurs.Recommendation2RevisethecurrentWSSCriskassessmentrankingsystemtoaddweightingandnuancetotheabove-the-groundfactorssuchaslanduseenvironmentalimpactandthepotentialforflooding.TheCommitteerecommendsthatWSSCreviseitsSafetyAssessmentScoreSASriskassessmentformularanking.TheCommitteewasbriefedonthecurrentformulaanddeterminedthatalthoughitdoesfactorinsomeabovethegroundconditionsandusesitdoesnotsufficientlyweightsuchfactorsandthefactorsarenotsufficientlybroad-based.Oneimportantfactorwhichisnotapartofthecurrentassessmentisthepotentialforflooding.Theresearchonothercommunitiesfoundthatthereareexistingmodelsforriskassessmente.g.Baltimoreinwhichlanduseiselevatedasafactorandgivenmoreappropriateandnuancedconsideration.TheCommitteeunderstandsthatthecurrentformulawasdevelopedandusedtosetthecurrentinitialinspectionscheduleforlarge-diameterPCCPandthatinthefuturetheinspectionschedulewillbeguidedbyresultsfromtheAFOmonitoring.NonethelessitbelievestherewillbesituationswheretheAFO WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201421resultsandriskassessmentresultswillbeneededtoguideWSSCsprioritizationandthereforeWSSCshouldworkwithitsstakeholderstorevisetheriskassessmentformula.Recommendation3ProvidethepublicwithabalancededucationregardingtherisksofPCCPbreaksandWSSCseffortstopreventthemandmitigatetheirconsequences.Thepotentialforlargediameterwatermainbreaksandtheconsequencesresultingfromsuchbreaksarepartoflivinginadenselypopulatedcommunityinthe21stcentury.Residentsshouldknowthattheirwaterutilityisaheadofthecurveonpreventingbreaksminimizingthepotentialconsequencesofabreakandminimizingthedisruptioncausedbyabreakiftheydooccur.TheCommitteefoundthatWSSCisanindustryleaderinapplyingtechnologytoidentifypipesthatareatriskoffailure.WSSCspubliceducationeffortsshoulddescribeitscurrentandongoingmonitoringinspectionrepairandreplacementprogramthathasbeenverysuccessfulatpreventingandmitigatingsuchfailures.InrampingupthisawarenesscampaignWSSCshouldbecarefultoavoidtheportrayalofPCCPfailuresascatastrophic.WhilethetermcatastrophicmaybeatermofartcommonlyusedwithintheengineeringprofessiontodescribethewaythatPCCPfailsusingtheterminanypublicmessagingcouldyieldanunintentionalpublicperceptionthattheconsequencesofsuchfailuresarecatastrophic.AsageneralprincipleWSSCshouldprovidestraightforwardinformationregardingthisissuewithabalancededucationofboththepotentialrisksandconsequencesofPCCPbreakscoupledwiththeeffortstopreventthemandmanagetheirconsequences.DespiteWSSCseffortsbreakswillstilloccurandsoapartofWSSCspubliceducationshouldbetargetedathowthepublicshouldrespondwhenabreakoccurs.AsanexampleWSSCcoulddevelopabrochureentitledWhatToDointheEventofaWaterMainBreakandhaveitdisseminatedwidely. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201422Section5.BBreakPreventionSectionofRecommendations5.B.1IntroductionBreakpreventionisaboutreducingthenumberofbreaksthatoccur.WhilethescopeofthisworkwastoconsiderallthewaysthatPCCPfailurescanbeaddressedpreventingbreaksinthefirstplaceversusmitigatingtheirimpactsoreffectivelyrespondingtoabreakisanappropriateproactiveapproachtotheproblem.PreventingPCCPbreaksinvolvestwomajorsetsofactivities.Firsttherearetheapproachesformonitoringtheintegrityofthepipesanddetectingproblems.Secondtherearevarioustypesofinterventionsincludingreplacementaimedatpreventinganyidentifiedproblemsfromcausingbreaks.TheCommitteeexploredWSSCspastandcurrentprogramsaimedatpreventingbreaks.17Committeemembersalsodevelopedandconsideredasizeablenumberofpotentialapproachesrelatingtobothaspectsofbreakprevention.TheCommitteewishestoaffirmWSSCscommitmenttobreakpreventioninparticulartheinvestmentithasmadeinmonitoringtheconditionoflarge-diameterPCCP.FromwhatithaslearnedaboutWSSCsapproachtheCommitteeexpectsthattheAFOmonitoringsystemwhichhasbeeninstalledinallPCCP48inchesandlargeralongwithinspectionsandadditionalevolvingmonitoringpracticeswillallowWSSCtoknowwheretheproblempipesexperiencingacousticalbreaksarelocatedandtocatchalmostallpotentialbreaksbeforetheyoccur.TheCommitteeunderstandsthesystemisnotfailsafeandthatthesystemisnotyetfullyinstalledinthe42-and36-inchPCCP.NonethelessitapplaudsWSSCsinvestmentinthistechnologicalcapabilitytocatchpotentialbreaksbeforetheyeveroccur.IntheresearchonothercommunitiesitbecamequiteclearthatthistechnologyisviewedasthebestpracticeforPCCPmonitoringandthatWSSCisaleaderinitsuse.18OneareaofparticularconcernthatwasidentifiedregardsWSSCsabilitytomonitorfactory-fabricatedoutletslocatedwithintwofeetorlessoftheendofapipesegmentfactory-fabricatedoutletasthistypeofjointwasthecauseoftheMarch201360PCCPwatermainbreakatConnecticutAvenuewhichoccurredjustpriortotheonsetoftheCommitteesdeliberations.ThepipethatbrokewasmonitoredbytheAFOsystembutthesystemdidnotprovideanyadvancewarningbeforethebreakoccurred.ThisbreakinvolvingthistypeofpipecomponentwasthefirstbreakofthisdesignintheWSSCs70-yeartransmissionmainhistoryandtheonlybreaktohaveoccurredonasegmentmonitoredbytheAFOsystem.ThereforeitbecameclearthattherearelimitationstotheabilityoftheAFOsystemtofunctioneffectivelyforthistypeofpipeinfrastructure.TheCommitteealsolearnedthatthistypeofbreakinvolvedleakagepriortothebreaksothereareopportunitiestodevelopeffectivemonitoring.ItwasbriefedbyWSSConitsactionplaninvolvingtheinventoryofthesetypesofjointsanditseffortstobetterinspectandmonitorthesesegments.Monitoringandinspectionrepresentonepartofthefocusonprevention.ThecompanionelementofthepipemanagementprogramistherepairorreplacementofproblematicPCCP.17SeeSection2.Bofthereport.18SeeAppendix8.AfortheCommitteeskeyfindingsfromtheresearchonothercommunities. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201423Attheheartofthesediscussionsistheissueoftheoperationalconstraintsofthesystem.TheCommitteelearnedthatinadditiontoWSSCsrepairandreplacementofpipesbasedoninspectionandmonitoringresultsWSSCisopentoselectivepipereplacementoflarge-diameterPCCPconcurrentwithprojectsinitiatedbydevelopersoragenciesundertheconditionsthat1thedeveloperpaysforanyunplannedunscheduledreplacementand2thattheinterventionisoperationallyviable.TheCommitteedidnotdevelopanunderstandingofthecircumstancesinwhichitwouldbereasonabletoexpectadevelopertorepairorreplacePCCPthatwasnototherwiseprogrammedforreplacement.WSSCdidsharethattheprincipalconstraintisthatWSSCislimitedinitsabilitytotakepipesoutofservicebecausethereisalackofredundancyinthesystemsuchthatthereplacementinterventioncreatesariskoflossofwaterserviceinthesurroundingcommunity.WSSCindicatedthatthetransmissionsystemdoesnothavemuchredundancyandthattheopportunitiesforredundancyarelimited.WhilethereissomelevelofredundancywhichenablespipestobetakenoutofservicebothforinspectionsandforrepairreplacementworkWSSCisconcernedthattakinglinesoutofserviceforvoluntaryreplacementplacesagreaterrelianceonlimitedsecondarylinesandmayposeagreaterriskofaserviceoutage.Eveniftheresourceswereavailabletofundreplacementofallofthelarge-diameterPCCPorevenasizeableamountofittheoperationalsystemconstraintswouldstilllimitthedegreetowhichthatreplacementworkcouldproceed.Perhapsthemostimportantdimensionofthediscussionsofpreventionstrategiesistheconceptofprioritizationwhichiscentraltotheoverarchingrecommendations.19WithspecificregardtopreventiontheCommitteehasarticulatedapreferenceforaprioritizedapproachtopreventioninwhichpreventioneffortsincludingmonitoringinvestmentsandrepairreplacementeffortsarenotspreaduniversallyacrossthecountiesoracrossthepipesystembutrathertargetedathigher-riskareaswherethelikelihoodofabreakandthelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamageishigher.ThereforeitisfocusedonensuringthatWSSCsmonitoringdetectioninvestmentsandrepairreinforcementinvestmentsarebeingfocusedonthehigherriskareasinalignmentwiththisoverarchingapproach.TheCommitteeoffersthefollowingrecommendationsforprevention5.B.2SpecificRecommendationsforBreakPreventionRecommendation4WSSCshouldensureitslong-termstrategyforlarge-diameterPCCPrepairandreplacementputsappropriateemphasisontargetedareaswherethelikelihoodofabreakandthelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamagemaybehigher.InadditiontocontinuingitsongoingtestinginspectionsrepairandreplacementeffortsWSSCshouldensurethatitslong-termstrategyforlarge-diameterPCCPrepairandreplacementsetsahigherpriorityforareasthatmaybeidentifiedashavingahigherriskofconsequencesfrompotentialbreaks.Thiscouldincludeareaswithahighdensityofplaceswherevulnerableresidentscongregatee.g.schoolshospitalsdaycarecentersseniorcentersareaswithcriticalinfrastructuree.g.electricalsubstationspublicsafetyfacilitiesMetrocentersandsimilaruses.Itisimportanttonotethatwhenconsideringpopulationdensityinproximitytolarge-diameterPCCPconsiderationmustbegiventothedifferences19SeeSection5.AforabroaderdiscussionoftheCommitteesviewsonprioritization. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201424indaytimeandnighttimedensities.WSSCshouldworkwithitsstakeholdersindefiningthehigher-priorityareas.Suchastrategyandprioritizationshouldbebasednotsolelyuponanassessmentofpipeconditioni.e.thelikelihoodofbreakbutalsouponanassessmentofsite-specificfactorssuchastopographylanduseandthepotentialforfloodingdamage.ThesepriorityelementswouldsupplementthepipeconditionassessmentssuchasageandAFOmonitoringresultscurrentlyused.PleaseseeRecommendation2inSection5.AoftheoverarchingrecommendationswhichrecommendsanupdatetotheSASriskrankingsystemthatwouldfacilitatethissortofprioritization.Tofacilitatethesebroaderassessmentsasitdevelopsitslong-termstrategyitisfurtherrecommendedthatWSSCutilizemappingtoolssuchasthosedevelopedincollaborationwiththeCommitteesVisualizationWorkgroupusingWSSCsGIStechnologytoportrayseriousfloodrisksandtheproximityoflarge-diameterPCCPtolandusese.g.singlefamilyhomes.PleaseseeRecommendation1inSection5.AoftheoverarchingrecommendationswhichrecommendscompletionoftheCommitteesVisualizationTool.TheCommitteeconsideredbutisnotrecommendingthatWSSCdefineatimelineforproactivePCCPreplacementinthehigher-riskareas.IntheresearchonothercommunitiestheCommitteelearnedofsucheffortsMetropolitanWaterDistrictofSouthernCaliforniaandSanDiegohavebothcommittedtoalong-termproactivePCCPreplacementstrategy.20Inconsiderationofthefactthat98oflarge-diameterPCCPsegmentshaveusefulremaininglifetheCommitteedidnotfeelthatthebenefitsofsuchanapproachwouldjustifythecostinlightoftherelativelylowlevelsofriskandinlightoftheAFOmonitoringandotherpipemanagementstrategiesalreadyinplace.ThatbeingsaiditdoesencourageWSSCtodevelopalong-termservicereliabilitystrategywiththegoalofensuringthehealthofthepipeinfrastructurewellintothefuture.Asimilarstrategicapproachshouldguidetheassessmentandmaintenanceofexistingwatervalvesortheadditionofwatervalvestotheexistinginfrastructure.Theinstallationofadditionalvalvesduringpipereplacementcanprovidemoreoptionswhenfacedwithlossofserviceforfuturerepairorreplacementandoptionsforclosingoffpipestoavoiddamagefromwaterflow.Tosuccessfullyimplementalong-termplanoflarge-diameterPCCPrepairandreplacementortofacilitateasuccessfulrapidresponsetoanactualeventwatervalvesmustbeaccessiblestrategicallyplacedandfunctioningproperlytoenablequickisolationandshut-downofwaterlinesegments.21Recommendation5BuildadditionalredundancyintothetransmissionsystemtoincreaseWSSCsabilitytomakenecessaryrepairsandupgradeswhileminimizingriskoflossofwaterservicetoWSSCcustomers.AlthoughWSSCscurrentinfrastructurehasalevelofredundancythatallowstheutilitytomeetitscurrentoperationalneedstheCommitteebelievesthatmoreredundancyisimperativetofacilitatethedevelopmentandimplementationofameaningfullong-term20PleaseseeAppendix8.AfortheCommitteeskeyfindingsfromtheresearchonothercommunities.21SeeRecommendation10fortheCommitteesspecificrecommendationregardingvalves. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201425strategicplan.WSSCadvisesthatincreasingthelevelofredundancyisnecessarytoallowsmallersectionsofPCCPtobetakenofflineforrepairandreplacement.AccordinglytheCommitteerecommendsthatWSSCdevelopastrategytoimplementadequateredundancytoaddressthePCCPrepairandreplacementgoals.TheCommitteeisawarethatWSSCisundertakinganexpansionofthesystemcapacityfromthePatuxentRivertoreducerelianceonwaterfromthePotomacRiver.WSSCexplainedthatthepurposeofthisexpansionistoprovidethecapabilityforintroducingmorewaterfromthePatuxentRiverthusprovidingthecapabilityforbetterbalancingoffinishedwaterwithinthesystem.WSSCfurtherexplainedthattheexpansionundercertainscenarioswouldalsoprovidebetteraccesstocertainportionsofthesystemwhenvarioustransmissionmainsareoutofservice.Thismayinturneasesomeoperationaldynamicpressuresinthesystem.Recommendation6Exploretheoperationalandbudgetaryfeasibilityofamoreaggressiveinspectionscheduleforlarge-diameterPCCP.WSSCshouldimplementifdeemedpossibleamoreaggressiveinspectionscheduleforalllarge-diameterPCCP.Thecurrentscheduleat18milesofpipeperyearisacknowledgedasagoalbutmaynotbeaggressiveenough.TheCommitteenotedthatthe36-inchand42-inchpipesconstitute68mileswithinthesystemforwhichtherehasbeennoinspectionscheduleestablished.OneofthebenefitsofamoreaggressiveprogramisthatthetimetableforfullimplementationoftheAFOmonitoringprogramisafunctionofthespeedwithwhichinitialinspectionsofthese36-inchand42-inchpipescanoccur.WSSChasraisedconcernsbothbudgetaryandoperationalregardingincreasingthisprogram.WSSCrepresentativessuggestedthattheinspectionscheduleneededtobebalancedinordertominimizetheriskofwaternotbeingavailableduringanemergency.OnbalancetheCommitteeagreedthatalthoughoperationalandbudgetissuesmaybeanissueifthecurrentinspectionprogramcanbeadvanceditshouldbe.Recommendation7Developaninventoryoffactory-fabricatedoutletslocatedwithintwofeetorlessoftheendofapipesegmentthetypeofjointinvolvedintheMarch2013ConnecticutAvenuebreakandfasttrackthefeasibilityofdevelopingamonitoringprogramfortheselocations.Inregardtotheapparentprobleminvolvingsuchfactory-fabricatedoutletstheCommitteeagreedthatnowthataninventoryofthese234occurrencesexistsamonitoringandrepairsolutionmustbeidentifiedtestedandimplementedassoonaspossible.Giventhepublicitysurroundingthisproblemareporttoelectedofficialsregardingthisissueisappropriate.Recommendation8Investinadditionalresearchanddevelopmentintopiperepairandrefurbishmenttechnologiesandapproaches.KnowledgeregardingPCCPcomesnotonlyfromexperiencebutalsofromcontinuedresearchwhichotheragenciesandwaterauthoritiesmaybeexploring.ForinstancetheWaterResearchFoundationrecentlydevelopedalargePCCPBestPracticesManualto WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201426whichmanywaterauthoritiescontributed.22ItisimportantthatWSSCengageinsuchactivitiesandthatitcontinueandevenexpanditsresearchanddevelopmenteffortstoexploremoreeffectivedurablerepairtechniquesandthinnerliningmaterialsandotherrefurbishmentsthatcouldminimizetheneedforreplacement.TheCommitteebelievesthatitisimportantthatWSSCkeepcurrentwithrecentdevelopmentsbyattendingindustryconferencesandassistinotheron-goingresearch.ItcommendsWSSCforapplyingtheknowledgegainedfromsuchresearchanddevelopmentinthefieldtodateandencouragesWSSCtocontinueandtoexpandthoseefforts.22Appendix6.DtheBibliographyincludesthefullreferencetothisreport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201427Section5.CMitigationSectionofRecommendations5.C.1IntroductionWhereaspreventionisaboutreducingthenumberofbreaksmitigationisaboutreducingthepotentialriskofharmtopeopleorpropertythatmayresultfromthethreephysicaldynamicsassociatedwithbreaksifloodingiicratersandiiidebristhrowandwaterjetstream.Theapproachestomitigationincludeideasthatcutacrossthedifferentimpactsofabreakfloodingcrateranddebristhrowwaterjetaswellasmorefocusedapproachestargetedatjustoneoftheseissues.Forinstancemitigationstrategieshavingtodowithvalvescouldimpactthedegreeoffloodingfromabreakbutthatwouldnotaddresstheotherimpacts.Likewisetherearemitigationstrategiesthatwouldonlyaddresstheissueofdebristhrowandwaterjetstreame.g.approachestoprotectorshieldbuildingsinsomeway.InlinewiththeCommitteespositionabouttherelativeimportanceofthedifferentbreakimpactsithasemphasizedthoserecommendationsthataddressthefloodingimpactsofabreakversusthosehavingtodowiththepotentialfordebristhrowandwaterjet.Floodingisthegreatestconcernduetothedurationpersistenceofthisimpactanditspotentialbroadgeographicreach.23TheCommitteebelievesitisextremelydifficulttodevelopandimplementviablemitigationsolutionsthataddressexistingdevelopment.Whiletherearerecommendationsthataddressallareasofdevelopmentsuchasthoseregardingvalvesthemajorityoftherecommendationsinthemitigationsectionarefocusedonnewdevelopmentorre-development.TherecommendationsintheareasofPreventionandResponseareprincipallyfocusedonexistingdevelopmentCriticaltotherecommendationsinthemitigationcategoryisthatsolutionsshouldfocusontheareaswherethelikelihoodofabreakandthelikelihoodthatabreakwouldcausedamagemaybehigher.AsoutlinedfullyinSection5.Athereisadistinctionbetweenapipebeingatriskthroughapiperiskassessmentandahigherriskareabasedonfactorsbeyondthepipeincludingthephysicalenvironmentinwhichthepipesexistsanddevelopmentabovetheground.AttheheartofthisCommitteesdiscussionsofmitigationwastheissueofwhetheranyshiftinlanduseandbuildingpolicyisappropriate.Manyofthesepotentialpolicychangeswerecontroversialandthesubjectofthemostintensedebateamongmembersdueinlargeparttotheirstakeholderinterestsanddifferentviewofrisks.Manyoftheoptionswereseenasplacinghighorunknowncostsondeveloperswithquestionablebenefitsandwereeliminatedfromconsiderationintheabsenceofariskassessmentandacostbenefitanalysis.Onesuchproposalthatwasrejectedwasthe80-footsetbackintroducedbyWSSC.Theproposalwasseenasanacross-the-boardpolicythatrancontrarytotherecommendationforaprioritizedapproachtotheproblem.24Differentlevelsofriskthatexistbasedupondeterminationsofthelandusesandlandcharacteristicssurroundingdifferentsegmentsofpipearenotaddressedthroughanestablishedset-backwithoutconsiderationoftheriskdifferentials.TherewasalsoastrongsentimentexpressedbysomeCommitteemembersthatthe80-footsetbackwasnotequitableasitrepresentedatakingofpropertybyWSSCwithnojustcompensationfora23SeeSection2.Aofthereport24ThisisdiscussedfurtherinSection5.A.1ofthereport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201428potentialprobleminherentinitsinfrastructureandanoversteppingofWSSCsauthoritythatwentbeyonditsestablishedright-of-way.Additionallythe80-footdistanceinthesetbackproposalwasseenasreflectingonlysomeofthebreakimpactsanticipatedcratersbutnotothersflooding.UltimatelytheCommitteewassimplynotconvincedgiventheinformationpresentedthattheexistingrights-of-wayareinadequateorthatwithsuchalowrateofbreakagecoupledwiththemonitoringandinspectionprogramsthatapolicyshiftofthisnatureiswarranted.Althoughseveraladditionalbuildingandlandusepolicyideaswerediscussedtheideaofdevelopingsomekindofperformance-basedbuildingdesignandconstructionstandardsreceivedsignificantattentionintheCommitteesdeliberations.Theideawastodefineperformancestandardsorparametersfornewstructuresthatwoulddefinetheimpactsfromabreakthatbuildingswouldneedtowithstande.g.buildingbuiltnexttopipemustbeabletowithstandxoryasopposedtoprescribinganysortofdesignrequirementsortacticse.g.buildingbuiltnexttopipemusthaveafoundationthatis2xthick.TheCommitteefeltthatitlackedthenecessarytechnicalexpertiseorinputsforfullconsiderationofsuchstandardsforinstancetherewasnosetofexistingstandardsthatcouldbeadoptedorreferenced.TheCommitteedoubtedwhetheritwouldbetechnicallyfeasibletodevelopthemandwhetheritwouldbepossibletocreateperformancestandardswhetheroptionalormandatorythatwouldhavereasonablecostsandbenefitsassociatedwiththem.UltimatelyinconsiderationofitsobservationsregardingthelowprobabilityofbreaksexpectedtoleranceforsomedegreeofriskinabuiltenvironmentthestrengthofWSSCscurrentinspectionandAFOmonitoringprogramandtheunknownandpotentiallyhighcoststodevelopersthatcouldbeassociatedwithsuchstandardsalargemajorityoftheCommitteerejectedthedevelopmentofsuchperformancestandardsasapotentialrecommendation.LastlytheCommitteeobservedthatastheworldbecomesmoreinterconnectedtherewillbelessrelianceandlesstoleranceforsiloeddecisionmakingbasedononeentitiesviewandwhileitisrecognizedthatWSSChasvastexpertiseinwatermanagementthesolutionstothisandfuturechallengeswheretherearelegitimatecompetingconcernswillbedependentoncreatingahigherlevelofcollaborationandinteragencycommunication.Thusseveraloftherecommendationspointtotheprocesscontentandstructuresthatwillsupportsuchanapproach.InthecontextoftheseoverarchingbeliefsandtherangeofapproachesdiscussedtheCommitteemakesthefollowingrecommendations5.C.2SpecificRecommendationsforMitigationRecommendation9LeveragetheVisualizationMappingtounderstandtherelationshipbetweenlarge-diameterPCCPandthebuiltandnaturalenvironmentsandtoassistindevelopinganunderstandingofthelikelihoodoffloodingconsequencesnotethatthisisnotintendedtoreplaceprofessionalengineeringfloodanalyses.TheCommitteebelievesthatworkisneededtoidentifywhethertherearehigher-riskareasforfloodingidentificationofhigher-priorityareaswherewaterflowcouldbeacriticalproblemfollowingaPCCPbreak.Thiswouldtaketopographyandotherfactorsintoaccountintryingtoaddresswaterflowissuesrecognizingthatinsomeareaswaterflowwillnotbeaproblemwhereasinothersitwillbecritical. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201429TheCommitteerecommendsthatWSSCevaluatewhethertheVisualizationMappingprototype25wouldprovidemeaningfulinformationtoinformWSSCifcertainareasareofconcernrelativetowherethepipesareinrelationtothecontoursandslopeofthelandinthearea.Thisisnotenvisionedasahydrologicmodelthatusesmodelingtechniquestosimulateormodelwhatthewaterflowandfloodingimpactswouldbeforaparticularbreaksuchamodelingactivityisseenasahighlycomplexundertakingthatwouldbeverytimeintensiveandverycostlygiventhemultitudeoffactorstoaccountforsuchasthewaterpressureandroleofstreamsandotherdrainagesystems.Developmentofthiscapabilitymaynecessitateworkingwithstormwatermanagementauthoritiesorotherswiththerelevantexpertisetounderstandandpotentiallyapplythesortofdownstreamsafeconveyanceandoverlandreliefanalysisthatisdoneinthedesignofstormwatercollectionandconveyancesystemstoensurethatsuchsystemscanhandleacertainamountofexpectedwater.Shouldthisrevealareasathigherriskoffloodingorimpactsfromfloodingpotentialsite-specificmitigationmeasurescouldthenbeexploredforthoseparticularsites.Thetoolcouldalsohelpwithemergencyresponsetoassistwithmakingarapidassessmentofwhetherandwherefloodingproblemsmayarise.Recommendation10Ensurethesufficiencyaccessibilityandproperoperationofvalvestorespondtopotentialbreaksincludingverifyingthelocationofexistingvalvesanddeterminingwhetheradditionalvalvesareneeded.TheCommitteerecognizesthecriticalrolethatvalvesplayinhelpingtominimizethetimetoshutdownwaterandtherebylimitwaterflowfollowingabreak.Indeedtheabilitytolocateandturnoffthevalvesthatcontrolwaterflowtothebrokenpipeisoneofthekeyfactorsthatdirectlyimpacttheamountoffloodinganderosivecrateringfromagivenbreakwithotherkeyfactorsincludingthesizeandwaterpressureofthepipethesurroundingtopographyandtheidentificationofthebreaklocation.Ifvalvesareinaccessibleorbrokenthiscanimpedeeffortstobothrespondtoafailedpipesegmentandtoconductnecessaryrepairsonasegmentthatisfailing.ForthevalvesinthesystemWSSCneedstoverifyandGeocodetheirlocationensurereadyaccesse.g.cleartreesandvegetationaroundvalvesanddevelopaplantoensuretheyaretestedandexercisedonaregularprescribedscheduletoensuretheirproperfunctioning.WSSCshouldalsoassesswhetheradditionalvalvesareneededinthesystemtobeabletoquicklyandeffectivelyrespondtobreakswithparticularattentiontoareasathigherriskofflooding.26Thismayentaildefiningatargetresponsetimeforshuttingdownthewaterfollowingabreakrunningdrillstoensurepropertrainingforsecuringvalvesensuringproperinternalcoordinationofvalvemaintenanceorinvestmentinstrategicautomaticvalvesthatcouldbeoperatedremotely.TheCommitteealsoseestheopportunitytointegrateinformationaboutvalvesasalayerintheGISVisualizationMapping.2725SeeRecommendation1inSection5.A.26SeeRecommendation9inthissectionandRecommendation4inSection5.B.27SeeRecommendation1inSection5.A. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201430Recommendation11RemovetheSpecialConsiderationslanguagefromtheWSSCDesignManualwhichallowsWSSCtoimposespecialconsiderationsandmodificationstoanynewdevelopmentproposedwithintwohundred200feetofPCCP.TheWSSCDesignManualPartThreeSection2b.ExistingPipelineWidthRequirementsprovidesthefollowing200SpecialConsiderationsLanguageExistingPipelineWidthRequirementsTheexistingwidthsofrightofwaysshownprovidedforexistinglargediameterpipelines30-inchandlargermaybeinadequatefrombothpublicsafetyandoperationandmaintenanceperspectives.ThemostseriousrisksareposedinsituationswhereoccupiedspacesarebuiltwithinshortdistancesoflargediameterPre-StressedConcreteCylinderPipePCCP.PCCPfailcatastrophicallyandresultinseriouspublicsafetyconcerns.Foranynewdevelopmentproposedwithintwohundred200feetofthesepipelinesspecialconsiderationsandmodificationsmaybeimposed.CommitteerepresentativesfromWSSCacknowledgedthatitisnotimposingspecialconsiderationsonanynewdevelopmentprojectasitfoundthislanguagetobeinadequatefailingtoprovideWSSCstaffwithsufficientguidanceintheirreviewofdevelopmentprojectsastheypertaintoPCCPguidelinesandfailingtoprovidedeveloperswithenoughspecificity.ThereforethelanguageshouldberemovedtoalleviateanyconfusionorconcernaboutitsinterpretationapplicabilityortheauthorityofWSSCtorelyonitaspartofitspermittingprocess.ThisrecommendationdoesnotintendanychangetoWSSCsauthoritytoestablishcertaincontrolswithintheexistingrightsofwayinwhichthesepipesarelocated.ItshouldbenotedthatevenasthisCommitteerecommendstheremovalofthisspecificlanguageitismakingseveralrelatedrecommendations1213and14regardingWSSCsparticipationinthedevelopmentprocessandtheinformationthatshouldbesharedwithdevelopers.Recommendation12WSSCshouldadviseownersdevelopersintheearlystagesofthedevelopmentprocessofthepresenceandlocationofPCCPtransmissionmainsrelatedtotheproposeddevelopmentshownondevelopmentplansandtherisksassociatedwiththeirfailure.TheCommitteeseesWSSCplayingacriticalroleofinformereducatorinthedevelopmentreviewprocessprovidingcriticalinformationaboutthepresenceandlocationofPCCPtransmissionmainsaswellasinformationabouttherisksofthefailureofthesepipes.ThisshouldbeaccomplishedviaageneralnoticeintheDesignManualmeanttoreplacethecurrentspecialconsiderationslanguageregardingtherisksoflarge-diameterPCCPfailure.ThisnoticeshouldbewritteninamannerconsistentwiththefindingsregardingtherisksandshouldbedevelopedwithWSSCsstakeholders.ThisroleshouldalsobeadvancedviaWSSCsactiveparticipationasacollaborativepartnerintheDevelopmentReviewCommitteeDRCinMontgomeryCountyoritscorollarytheSubdivisionandDevelopmentReviewCommitteeSRCinPrinceGeorgesCounty. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201431TheinformationsharedregardingnearbyPCCPcouldincludethelocationofthepipestheircurrentandhistoricalconditionaswellasotherrelevantsite-specificinformationsuchasfromtheVisualizationMapping.InformationontherisksofPCCPtransmissionmainfailurescouldincludesummarizingtherecentbreakhistoryintheWSSCsystemcharacterizingthethreeimpactsofabreakoutliningthelowprobabilitybutpossibilityoffailureetc.Thisgeneralriskinformationshouldbetailoredtoreflectwhetherthedevelopmentinquestionisorisnotoccurringinthehigher-riskareasnotedthroughoutthisreport.Havingcommunicatedwhatisknownaboutthepipesthedeveloperanditsengineerscanthendecidewhatifanythingtheybelieveneedstobedoneinresponse.InrecommendingthisinformereducatorroleforWSSCinthedevelopmentprocesstheCommitteealsowishestonotethatitrecommendsthatWSSCnotplaytheroleofadvisorconsultantprovidingconsultationstodevelopersregardinghowtheymightmodifytheirplanstobetterprotectthestructureintheeventofbreak.IthasbeenacknowledgedbyWSSCandthedevelopmentcommunitythatWSSCsknowledgeislimitedtowatersystemsnotstructuralorcivilengineering.InitsresearchonothercommunitiestheCommitteelearnedthatthissortofeducationisbeingprovidedtodevelopersinPhoenix.AlthoughbuildersarenotrequiredtochangetheirplansinresponsethewaterutilityinPhoenixindicatedthatinresponsetotheprovisionofthissortofinformationdevelopershaveindeedbeenmakingchangestotheirplans.28Recommendation13Intheeventaproposeddevelopmentcouldbeimpactedbylarge-diameterPCCPWSSCshouldbeactivelyengagedintheDevelopmentReviewCommitteeMontgomeryCountyandSubdivisionandDevelopmentReviewCommitteePrinceGeorgesCounty.TheDevelopmentReviewCommitteeDRCandtheSubdivisionandDevelopmentReviewCommitteeSRCarepartoftheexistingdevelopmentreviewprocessesforbothMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiesrespectively.InbothprocessesallimpactedgovernmentalagenciesincludingWSSCareintendedtocometogetherwithapplicantsfordevelopmentofpropertytopresentdevelopmentrequirementsandconcernsandtoreconcileanyconflictinginterestsconcernsandorissuesraisedinthedevelopmentreviewprocess.WSSChasbeenaregularinviteebutgenerallysubmitsstandardcommentsinwritingwithoutattendingorcoordinatingwithotheragencies.Inordertoconveyandclarifyitsconcernsrelatedtothepotentialimpactfromnearbylarger-diameterPCCPandtounderstandhowtheconflictinginterestsmayneedtobebalancedWSSCshouldbeactivelyengagedintheseprocessesincludingattendingandactivelyparticipatinginthemeetingsversussubmittingwrittencommentsbutnotattendinginperson.InMontgomeryCountyWSSCshouldalsoactivelyparticipateinthepre-DRCmeetingthereisnopre-SRCmeetinginPrinceGeorgesCounty.TheCommitteefeelsitisonlythroughWSSCsactiveengagementintheseprocessesthatthewaterutilitywillbeabletoconveyitsspecificrisk-basedconcernsregardingPCCPanddrivethecollaborativediscussionregardingwhatmayneedtobedoneinresponse.28PleaseseeAppendix8.AfortheCommitteeskeyfindingsfromtheresearchonothercommunities. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201432Recommendation14WSSCshouldtakeamoreactiveroleinthemasterplanprocessbeginningwithearlymeetingswithstaffwheninitiallanduserecommendationsarebeingconsideredatlocationsthatmaybedirectlyimpactedbylarge-diameterPCCP.AsaboveinthecourseofthemasterplanprocessWSSCshouldadviseplanningstaffofthepresenceandlocationofPCCPtransmissionmainsrelatedtoproposedlandusesandtherisksassociatedwiththeirfailure.Thelocationofthepipesshouldnotdictatethelong-termlanduseplansbutitisarelevantfactortothelong-termplanningformasterplanareas. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201433Section5.DResponseSectionofRecommendations5.D.1IntroductionDespiteeveryefforttoeffectivelymonitorpipesandrepairthemwhenindicatedfailureswillstilloccur.Moreoverotherfactorssuchasterrorismcontaminationorevenpipereplacementworkcanleadtoadisruptionintheprovisionofwater.Thiscreatesaneedtodeterminewaystodealwiththeensuingdisruptionstothecommunity.Suchdisruptionsmayhaveasmalllocalizedeffectifonlyafewresidencesorbusinesseshavetogowithoutwaterforseveralhoursoranextremelylargeimpactifthousandsofpeoplesuddenlyfindtheywillhavenorunningwaterforaperiodofadayorlonger.Regardlessofthescopeoftheoutageitisessentialtohaveastandardlistofproceduresinplacetodealwithsuchanemergencyandtoensurethattheseproceduresarefollowedintheeventofawateremergency.ThisCommitteeacknowledgesWSSCseffortsinresponsetoconcernsthathavebeenraised.Neverthelesswhileimprovementshavebeenmadethereismoreworktobedone.Itisimportanttonotethattheresponsetoabreakespeciallyiftheoutageisalargeoneisaninteragencyissue.AssuchalthoughtherecommendationsinthissectionarewrittenforWSSCtheireffectiveimplementationwillrequirethecontinuingcoordinationandengagementofnumerousagenciesinbothcounties.TheCommitteeoffersthefollowingrecommendations5.D.2SpecificRecommendationsforResponseRecommendation15AcomprehensiveEmergencyResponsePlanERPshouldbepreparedandfollowedintheeventofanymajordisruptiontothewatersupply.AlthoughWSSChasaformalprocessthatisfollowedwhendisruptionsoccurtheCustomerNotificationSystemOperationsManualwhichwasnotreviewedbytheCommitteebasedonconcernsthatwereraisedregardingthedisseminationofinformationrelatedtoapotentialpipebreaknearNationalHarboritappearsthatWSSCneedstobebetterpreparedtodealnotonlywiththephysicaldamagethatasignificantpiperupturemaycausebutalsowiththeimpactssuchabreakorevenapotentialbreakmayhaveonbusinessesresidentsandvisitors.AcomprehensiveERPmustcontainseveralelementsincludingaCommunicationsPlanaTrafficResponsePlanandaWaterDistributionPlanseeRecommendationsbelowformoredetailoneachoftheseaspects.ItshouldbeputtogetherincollaborationwithnumerousagenciesincludingbutnotnecessarilylimitedtothefollowingWSSCLocalGovernmentincludesagenciessuchastheHealthDepartmentPublicWorksandTransportationSocialServicesSchoolsFirePoliceandEmergencyManagementFederalEmergencyManagementAgencyFEMAMarylandEmergencyManagementAgencyMEMAMetropolitanWashingtonCouncilofGovernmentsCOGandHomelandSecurity.Havingsuchaplanandeducatingthepublicaboutsuchaplanwillhelpallaytheconcernsofresidents. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201434Recommendation16Workwithorganizationsthatcouldbemostaffectedbyabreaktohelpensuretheyareeducatedandpreparedtodealwiththeimpactsofalarge-diameterPCCPbreak.OnecriticalneedthatmustbefactoredintotheERPistoeducateandsupportadvancepreparationofhigher-riskconcernssuchashospitalsschoolsandnursinghomesthatareinareasidentifiedashigherriskusingtheVisualizationMapping.TheERPshouldincludeaprovisiontoworkwiththeseorganizationstoensuretheyunderstandtherisksofalarge-diameterPCCPbreakandthattheyhaveplannedforapotentiallarge-diameterPCCPbreak.ThesescenarioplanswouldthenbetriggeredbyWSSCsnotificationthateitherabreakhasjustoccurredorthatoneappearsimminent.29ItisrecommendedthattheOfficeofEmergencyManagementandHomelandSecurityOEMHSbeconsultedinthedevelopmentofthisapproachregardinghowitdealswiththesepopulationsforemergencymanagementplanning.Recommendation17UponidentifyingthataPCCPsegmentisfailingpriortoabreakprovidetimelynotificationtoemergencymanagementandotherappropriateagenciesincludingelectedofficialsandBoardsofEducationinMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCountiessothatappropriatepreparatoryactioncanbeinitiatedandcoordinatedinadvanceofanactualevent.GiventheincreasedmonitoringthathasbeenputinplacebyWSSCithasbecomeincreasinglylikelythatWSSCwillbecomeawareofapotentialbreakaswasthecasewiththeaforementionedpotentialbreaknearNationalHarborbeforeitoccurs.DuringdiscussionsWSSCnotedthatitalreadyhasproceduresinplacefornotifyingandcoordinatingwithlocalemergencymanagementofficialsintheeventofalarge-diameterPCCPbreak.Howeverearlywarningofimpendingbreakscanbeamajorfactorinpreventingormitigatingpotentialconsequences.Asmuchinformationaspossibleshouldbepassedontotheappropriateagenciesandofficialssothattheycanbetterdeterminetheactionsthatneedtobetakeninadvanceofanactualevent.Asanillustrativeexamplesuchnoticecouldprompttheschoolsystemsorlocaltransitauthoritiestotemporarilyrelocatecertainbusstopsorreroutecertainbuses.Whilenoticehasbeenprovidedininstanceswheretheensuinginterventionswouldimpactthepublicthiscanbeimproveduponbyprovidingasmuchdetailandtimelinessaspossible.Recommendation18Whenalarge-diameterwatermainbreakoccursassembleastandardsetofinformationasrapidlyaspossiblesothatitcanbeconveyedtoallrelevantpartiesincludingaffectedneighborhoodsappropriateagenciesandthemedia.Thefollowingareexamplesofthekeyquestionsthatmustbeansweredinordertoberesponsivetothepublicandotheragencies1Whereisthebreaklocated2Whattypeandsizeofpipeisinvolved3WhatisthecatchmentbasinArethereanyschoolshospitalsmajorroadstransitlinesdaycarefacilitiesnursinghomesorsimilarfacilitieswithinthecatchmentarea29SeeRecommendations17and18regardingsuchnotifications. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014354Isthelocationofthevalvesknown5Howmanyhomesorbusinesseswillbeimpacted6HowlongwillittakeuntilwaterisrestoredIfthereisabest-casescenarioandaworst-casescenariobothshouldbeclearlyexplained.7Wherecanpeoplegotoobtainemergencywatersupplies8Arethereanyspecialprovisionsforpeoplewithmedicalconditions9WhatshouldpeopledoiftheirpropertyhasbeennegativelyaffectedAsthepertinentinformationisgathereditshouldbedisseminatedthroughtheERPnetworktoanyagencythatmayneedtorespondandtoapre-identifiedlistofmediacontactsthatcanimmediatelynotifythepublic.Updatesshouldbeprovidedonaregularbasissothatpeopleunderstandthateveryeffortisbeingmadetogetthewaterbackonasquicklyaspossible.ThecommunicationsalsoneedtoreflectthemultiplepotentialscenariosbestcaseandworstcaseregardingthedurationoftheoutageandWSSCshouldworkcloselywithtopofficialsinthecountiestobalancethecomplexitiesinvolvedinenablingresidentstobepreparedversustheriskofcausinganunnecessaryoverreaction.WSSCdoeshaveaformalCustomerNotificationSystemOperationsManualandWSSChasrecentlybeguntoleveragetext-messagetypealertsystemstargetingboththeappropriateagencyleadersintheCountiesformajoroutagesandWSSCscustomers.Theseandothercommunicationchannelsshouldbeleveragedaspartofthisbroaderefforttoensuretherightinformationisgettingtotherightpartiesattherighttime.WSSCshouldworkcloselywiththeChiefAdministrativeOfficersinbothcountiestodeterminehowtheinformationshouldflowtokeypublicstakeholders.ThisapproachshouldbeoutlinedintheCommunicationssectionoftheERP.Recommendation19Assistinthedevelopmentofacomprehensivetrafficresponseplanthatwouldaimtominimizedisruptionwhenasignificantbreakoccursalongamajorarteryortransitline.Watermainbreaksoflargepipescanleadtoroadclosuresandincertaincasescouldrequireclosureofmetrotunnels.AlthoughitisnotpossibletodesignalternatetrafficplansforeveryroadinthecountysuchscenariosshouldbedevelopedforkeytravelcorridorssuchasRockvillePikeI-270I-495I-95Route1Route5IndianHeadHighwayEastWestHighwayCentralAvenueandtheMetrolinesinordertoprovideatemplateforthoseagenciesandofficialsinvolvedinreroutingtrafficonsite.ThetrafficresponseplanshouldalsoidentifyassetsfromWSSCandotheragenciessuchassignsandorvariablemessageboardswhichwillbeneededtoexecuteasafeandeffectiveresponse.WSSCshouldworkwiththeMarylandStateHighwayAdministrationtheCountyTransportationAgenciesandWashingtonMetropolitanAreaTransitAuthorityWMATAtopreparesuchatrafficresponseplan. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201436Recommendation20Takealeadroleinthedevelopmentofstrategiesandplansforprovidingresidentswithwaterintheeventofalarge-scaleandorlong-termdisruptiontothewatersupply.AlthoughtheimpactsofmostwatermainbreaksareusuallyfairlyshortindurationotherdisruptionstothewatersupplycanhaveimpactsforalongerperiodoftimeaswasthecasewhenthewatersupplyincertainpartsofWestVirginiawascontaminated.Mostresidentscancopeiftheirwaterisgoingtobecutoffforafewhoursbutwhenanoutageisgoingtobelongertheimpactsrapidlygrow.Waterisessentialtoeverydaylivingparticularlyfordrinkingandforbathing.Itisimportanttobeabletoquicklyassesswhetherthewaterisdrinkablewhetheritissafeforbathingforlaundryandsoforth.Everyoneneedstofeelconfidentthatwaterwillquicklybemadeavailabletotheminsomemannerwhennecessaryandthisisparticularlytrueforthosewhohavemedicalissues.TheERPshouldidentifyalternatewaterdistributionmethods.ForexampleWSSCcouldestablisharrangementswithmajorgrocerychainstoprovidebottledwaterwhenneeded.TheERPshoulddetermineinadvancewhowouldpayforthewaterprovided.ArrangementscouldalsobeinplacetohaveFEMAorotherjurisdictionssupplywatertokeylocationsifthatisdeemedtobenecessary.COGandWSSCarealreadyworkingtogethertodeveloparegionalwateroutageplanwhichwhencompletedcouldbeadoptedaspartoftheERP.Recommendation21EstablishcriteriaforwhenaCountysEmergencyOperationCenterEOCneedstobeactivatedworkinginconjunctionwithrelevantofficialsfromMontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesCounties.PrinceGeorgesandMontgomeryCountyalreadyhaveEmergencyOperationCentersEOCthatweredesignedtocoordinateagencyresponsesintheeventofanemergency.WhethertoactivatesuchaCenterdependsonthesizeorscopeofawatermainbreakorotherdisruptiontothewatersupply.Suchactivationwillensurethatallparticipatingagencieshaveaccesstothelatestinformationandtobetterfacilitatecommunicationamongthepartiestohelpensurethateverypossibleactionwasbeingtakentominimizetheimpactsfromsuchanevent.ThesamegroupsthatarepreparingtheEmergencyResponsePlanshoulddetermineunderwhatcircumstancestheEOCwouldneedtobeactivated. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201437Appendix6.AOriginalProposalfor80-footSetback WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201438Appendix6.BResolutionestablishingtheAdHocCommittee WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201439 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201440Appendix6.CAdHocCommitteeMembershipRosterNameOrganizationDesignationAddressErvBeckertPrinceGeorgesCountyChiefUtilitySectionSectionPrinceGeorgesCountyDPIE9400PeppercornPlaceSuite420LargoMD20774VincentBergWSSCCustomerAdvisoryBoardViceChair14501SweitzerLaneLaurelMD20707JudeBurkeMaryland-NationalCapitalBuildingIndustryAssociationWSSCLiaisonElmStreetDevelopment1355BeverlyRoadSuite240McLeanVA22101AdrianGardnerMaryland-NationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionAppointedbythePrinceGeorgesCountyPlanningBoardGeneralCounsel6611KenilworthAvenueSuite200RiverdaleMD20737GaryGummWashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommissionChiefEngineer14501SweitzerLane5thFloorLaurelMD20707JohnnieHemphillWashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommissionChiefofStaff14501SweitzerlaneLaurelMD20707-5902DianeJonesMontgomeryCountyDirectorDepartmentofPermittingServices255RockvillePikeRockvilleMD20850 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201441NameOrganizationDesignationAddressRoseKrasnowMaryland-NationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionAppointedbytheMontgomeryCountyPlanningBoardDeputyDirectorMontgomeryCountyPlanningDepartment8787GeorgiaAvenueSilverSpringMD20910RupertMcCavePrinceGeorgesCountyPublicSchoolsCapitalImprovementProgramOfficerFacilitiesAdministrationBuildingRoom1113300OldMarlboroPikeUpperMarlboroMD20772MarleneMichaelsonMontgomeryCountyCouncilSeniorLegislativeAnalyst100MarylandAvenueRockvilleMD20707ShaunPharrTheApartmentOfficeBuildingAssociationSeniorVicePresidentGovernmentAffairs1050SeventeenthStreetNWSuite300D.C.20036FernPiretMaryland-NationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionAppointedbythePrinceGeorgesCountyPlanningBoardPlanningDirectorPrinceGeorgesCountyPlanningDepartmentM-NCPPCCountyAdministrationBuildingSuite415014741GovernorOdenBowieDriveUpperMarlboroMD20772 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201442NameOrganizationDesignationAddressCarolRubinMaryland-NationalCapitalParkandPlanningCommissionAppointedbytheMontgomeryCountyPlanningBoardAssociateGeneralCounsel8787GeorgiaAvenueSuite205SilverSpringMD20910PamelaSamsWSSCCustomerAdvisoryBoardMember14501SweitzerLaneLaurelMD20707JohnSchlichtingCityofGaithersburgMarylandMunicipalLeagueDirectorPlanningandCodeAdministrationPlanningandCodeAdministrationCityofGaithersburgMaryland31SouthSummitAvenueGaithersburgMD20877VirginiaSheardMontgomeryCountyCivicFederationMemberatLargeCraigShumanMontgomeryCountyPublicSchoolsDirectorDivisionofConstruction45WestGuideDriveRockvilleMD20850HowardStonePrinceGeorgesCountyCouncilAdministrativeSpecialistOfficeofAuditsandInvestigationsCountyAdministrationBuilding14741Gov.OdenBowieDr.UpperMarlboroMD20772LauraSwisherWashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommissionAssociateCounselIIOfficeoftheGeneralCounsel14501SweitzerLaneLaurelMD20707 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201443Appendix6.DBibliographyandReferenceThisbibliographycontainsdocumentsreferencedtotheAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsthroughMarch312014.Anfenson-CorneauJ.2013July18.WSSCSouthernPrinceGeorgeswaterrestrictionsmaybeliftedFriday.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20130718NEWS130719076templategazetteArlingtonCountyOfficeofEmergencyManagement2010AfterActionReportWaterMainBreakNovember232009ArlingtonVAretrievefromBlumA.2013September10.WSSCadmitsmistakeinChevyChasewatermainbreakpromisesinspections.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20130910NEWS130919972templategazetteBurkeD.MemotoMarkCoughlindiscussingtheZarghameearticleBestPracticesManualforPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipeConditionAssessmentWhatWorksWhatDoesntWhatsNextPublishedin2012bytheEPAandtheWaterResearchFoundationJanuary242014CarignanS.2013July2.WSSCCrowndevelopershitstalemateoverlargewatermains.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20130702NEWS130709898templategazetteCarignanS.2013July24WhatifwaterwoeshitMontgomeryTheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20130724NEWS130729629templategazetteCharlesCountyGovernment.2013July18.WaldorfUnaffectedbyPrinceGeorgesWaterOutage.CharlesCountyGovernmentNewsBriefs.Retrievedfromhttpsomd.comnewsheadlines201316984.shtmlCoughlinM.GaewskiPaperAnalysisofTotalCostofLargeDiameterPipeFailuresJuly192013DavisJ.2014January14.GaithersburgWSSCdisagreeonbillthatcouldaffectpipesatCrownsite.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20140114NEWS140119527gaithersburg-wssc-disagree-on-bill-that-could-affect-pipes-at-crowntemplategazetteDohertyJim2004SetbacksandZoningforNaturalGasandHazardousLiquidTransmissionPipelinesMunicipalResearchServicesCenter2004SeattleretrievefromDurginC.2013July21ProblemswithWSSCsagingconcretewaterpipesnotgoingaway.TheWashingtonTimes.Retrievedfrom WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201444httpwww.washingtontimes.comnews2013jul21problems-with-wsscs-aging-concrete-water-pipes-notpageallFaberN.M.CoghillandJ.Galleher2012BeyondtheWiresASustainableApproachtoPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipeManagementPipelines2012InnovationinDesignConstructionOperationandMaintenanceDoingMorewithLessASCERestonVApp1214-1222RetrievefromForceJim2013SlipliningRehabilitatesCriticalWaterSupplyLineAmericanWaterWorksAssociationOpflowNovember20131819.GaewskiP.andF.Blaha2007AnalysisofTotalCostofLargeDiameterPipeFailuresAmericanWaterWorksAssociationResearchFoundation2007DenverCORetrievefromhttpwww.waterrf.orgresourcesListsPublicSpecialReportsAttachments5SupplementalReport.pdfGunnErik.2013November.ContinuousImprovement.MunicipalSewerWater20-24HigginsM.A.StroebeleandS.Zahidi2012NumbersDontLiePCCPPerformanceandDeteriorationBasedonaStatisticalReviewofaDecadeofConditionAssessmentDataPipelines2012InnovationinDesignConstructionOperationandMaintenanceDoingMorewithLessASCERestonVApp.298-306RetrievefromJohnsonJ.2013June26.WSSCandCrownsNeighborhood3LettertotheEditor.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpm.gazette.netgazettenetpm_110750contentdetail.htmcontentguidC6WRefZpJohnsonJ.2013July28.WSSCreactedresponsiblyinPrinceGeorgeswatermainrepairLettertotheEditor.TheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfromhttpwww.washingtonpost.comopinionswssc-cried-wolf-on-water-in-prince-georges-because-it-saw-a-wolf201307283e45fdb6-f5f2-11e2-81fa-8e83b3864c36_story.htmlKashD.B.BonckeR.BurbyC.ClausG.EdensW.HalvorsonR.MaleckiJ.PatesR.RabinowN.SridharT.TheofanousandT.Willke2004TransmissionPipelinesandLandUseARisk-InformedApproachTransportationResearchBoardoftheNationalAcademies2004WashingtonD.C.specialreport281Retrievefromhttponlinepubs.trb.orgonlinepubssrsr281.pdfLarkinsA.2013July17.SouthernPrinceGeorgeswaterlossshutsbusinessesangersresidents.TheGazette.Retrievedfromhttpwww.gazette.netarticle20130717NEWS130719163templategazetteLeshanB.2013July16.HowDidTheWaterCompanyDetectThePGWaterMainIssueWUSATV.Retrievedfromhttpoxonhill.wusa9.comnewsnews285611-how-did-water-company-detect-pg-water-main-issue WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201445LitterskiPeter2013EarsPeeledforTroubleMunicipalSewerWaterMagazineAugust2013.Retrievedfromhttpwww.mswmag.comeditorial201308ears_peeled_for_troubleMarshallJ.R.LoeraandP.Fisk2009WSSCReliabilityManagementPipelines2009InfrastructuresHiddenAssetsASCERestonVApp.86-97McReynoldsM.andT.Peng2012MeetingtheChallengesofPipelineEmergencyRepairMetropolitanWaterDistrictofSouthernCaliforniaLosAngelesCA.MegrathM.2013July16.NoWaterfordaysforPartsofPr.Georges.NBCWashington.Retrievedfromhttpwww.nbcwashington.comvideonewslocalNo-Water-for-Days-for-Parts-of-Pr--Georges215642361NeustadtJ.2013July19.MandatoryWaterRestrictionsLiftedinSouthernPrinceGeorgesCounty.NewsRelease.WashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommission.PaulsonPeter1998Three-stagemonitoringofprestressedconcretepipelinesNondestructiveEvaluationofUtilitiesandPipelinesII1998SanAntonioTXconcretevolume3398RetrievefromRomerA.D.EllisonG.BellandB.Clark2008FailureofPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipeAmericanWaterWorksAssociationResearchFoundationandU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyDenverCOretrievefromRomerA.G.BellandD.Ellison.FailureofPrestressedConcreteCylinderPipePDFdocument.RetrievedformAWWAAnnualConference2007AWWAResearchFoundationRFP4034ShaverK.2013June23.MarylandsuburbshometosomeofmostproblematicwaterpipesinU.S.TheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfromhttpwww.washingtonpost.comlocaltrafficandcommutingmaryland-suburbs-home-to-some-of-most-problematic-water-pipes-in-us201306234cadf5d6-c954-11e2-9245-773c0123c027_story.htmlShaverK.2014March31.MontgomeryandPrinceGeorgesrejectutlitiysbuildingsetbackproposal.TheWashingtonPost.RetrievedfromShaverK.2013July18.HowstubbornWSCmechanicsturnedbackdisaster.TheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfromhttpwww.washingtonpost.comlocaltrafficandcommutingrepairs-on-pr-georges-water-main-may-be-complete-by-this-evening20130718da8ab600-efbf-11e2-bed3-b9b6fe264871_story.htmlShaverK.2013July18.ReportsaysleakmanufacturingflawcausedChevyChasewatermainbreak.TheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfrom WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201446httpwww.washingtonpost.comlocaltrafficandcommutingreport-says-leak-manufacturing-flaw-caused-chevy-chase-water-main-break201307186e669868-efe2-11e2-a1f9-ea873b7e0424_story.htmlShaverK.2013September9.WSSCtoinspectpipesforflawfoundinChevyChasemainbreakTheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfromhttpwww.washingtonpost.comlocaltrafficandcommutingwssc-to-inspect-water-pipes-for-flaw-blamed-in-large-chevy-chase-main-break201309098073f434-1962-11e3-8685-5021e0c41964_story.htmlSpivakM.S.2013July17BakerWhendidWSSCknowaboutthisotheroptiononwatercrisisTheWashingtonPost.Retrievedfromhttpwww.washingtonpost.comlocalmd-politicsbaker-when-did-wssc-know-about-this-other-option-on-water-crisis20130717a31d35e4-ef29-11e2-a1f9-ea873b7e0424_story.htmlUnknownNarrator.2014March27.CommitteesetsrecommendationsforWSSCRadiobroadcast.WashingtonDCLocalStoriesWTOPRadioWagnerT.D.BurkeM.WoodcockandG.Fick2012FiveYearsandCountingtheEvolutionofWSSCsPCCPManagementProgramPipeline2012InnovationinDesignConstructionOperationandMaintenanceDoingMorewithLessASCERestonVApp.186-197WashingtonSuburbanSanitaryCommission.2012.WSSCPipelineDesignManualAmendmentProposed80-FootSetback-PositionPaper.LaurelMDZarghameeM.R.OjdrovicandP.Nardini2012BestPracticesManualforPrestressedConcretePipeConditionAssessmentWhatWorksWhatDoesntWhatsNextWaterResearchFoundationandU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyDenverCOretrievefrom WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201447Appendix6.EDrawingsofPCCPDesignSourceRomerA.EBellG.E.CEllisonD.R.2007AWWAResearchFoundationRFP4034FAILUREOFPRESTRESSEDCONCRETECYLINDERPIPEPowerPointSlides.ProvidedbyWSSC. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201448Appendix6.FHistoryandEvolutionofWSSCsPCCPManagementProgramBeginningin1968andthroughthe1970swaterutilitiesprimarilyinthesoutheastbeganexperiencingPCCPfailures.WSSCbeganexperiencingPCCPfailuresin1970throughthe1980sandin1979begantocreatewhatbecametheWSSCPCCPInspectionProgramitsfirstinternallargediameterpipelineinspectionwasconductedin1981ona72-inchlinethathadfailedtheyearbefore.Thefirstinspectionswereinternalandutilizedmannedteamsconductingvisualinspectionsandsoundingsbystrikingonthepipeswithhammers.Sightingoflargecircumferentialandlongitudinalcracksindicatedistresswhilesoundingsidentifyhollowsoundsorareasofdelaminationintheconcreteindicatinglikelyseparationoftheprestressedwiresandtheconcretetheyareembeddedwithin.AsearlyadoptersofPCCPWSSCstaffhasbeenintegrallyinvolvedwithPCCPinspectionandthedevelopmentofinspectiontechnologiesIn1987WSSCstaffalongwithOpenakaCorporationandCorrproCompanysurveyedPCCPusingpipetosoilelectropotentialsurveyinginanattempttodetermineifwirecorrosioncouldbedeterminedfromaboveground.In1988workingwithEntechEngineeringIncorporatedWSSCusedinfraredtechnologyandsurfacepenetratingradaronfailedPCCPinstorage.WSSCalsocontractedwithmetallurgicalandmaterialsconsultantsandhiredametallurgicalmaterialsengineerfromtheoilandgasindustrytoinvestigatefailedPCCPandtoinvestigatemethodsforPCCPconditionassessment.In1989WSSCbeganlookingatradarpulseechoacousticemissionsandseismicpulseechoastechniquestomovebeyondthesimplevisualandsoundingapproachutilizedintheinspectionprogramatthattime.WorkingwithGouldLewisandProctorcurrentlyLewisEngineeringstaffworkresultedinwhatbecametheASTMandAWWAPCCPstandardsforpre-stressingwires.Theseinvestigationsandstandardswerethebasisforthewiremanufacturingindustrymodifyingitswireproductionmethods.In1990WSSCwasthefirsttoperformelectromagneticinspectionofaPCCPlineadaptingequipmentusedintheoilandgasindustry.1990wasalsotheyearwhenWSSCvalidatedtheviabilityofacousticmonitoringandremotefieldelectromagnetictechnologiesforPCCPconditionassessment.Alsobeginningin1990andthroughouttherestofthe1990sWSSCworkedwiththeWestonGeophysicalCorporationtodevelopandtobuildaprototypeofsonicultrasonicpulseechoseismicpulseechotechnologyenhancingthesoundingtechniqueutilizedfromthebeginningoftheprogram.WSSCwasajointholderoftheresultingpatentofthistechnologyforPCCP.UseofthissonicultrasonictechnologywasincorporatedintoWSSCsinspectionactivitiesandbecameasignificantpartoftheinspectionandconditionassessmentprogramin1995.Duringthe1990sWSSCshareditsworkonacousticmonitoringwiththeUnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineersintheirsupportoftheBureauofLandReclamation.TheworkledtotheformationofPipeTechnologiesIncorporatedlatersoldtoPressurePipeInspectionCompany WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201449PPIC.PPICwasformedin1994fromremotefieldelectromagneticworkWSSCsharedwithDr.AthertonatQueensUniversityatKingstonCanadain1992.In1995WSSCintroducedacousticandelectromagneticassessmentmethodstoSoundPrintCompanywhichwentontobecomePureTechnologies.WSSCfirstusedelectromagnetictestingaspartoftheinspectionprogramin2002andusedPuresHydrophonearraystolistentoa42-inchPCCPinMontgomeryCounty.In2007theuseofpermanentlyinstalledfiberopticcablingforacousticmonitoringofPCCPwire-breakactivitybeganandthenin2008SmartBallacousticalleakdetectionwasaddedtotheinspectionprocess.Thatyearwasalsothefirstuseofinternalcarbonfiberreinforcementasarepairmethodforpipesegmentsthatcouldnotbereturnedtoservicepostinspectionbutwhichweredeemedrepairableifnotrepairablepipesegmentsarereplaced.In2010WSSCpilotedinternalroboticinspectionofa42-inchlineusingelectromagneticandcameravisualinspection. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201450Appendix6.GSafetyAnalysisScoreRiskRatingSystem-SafetyAnalysisScoreAnEmpiricalFormulawasusedtocalculatetheratingforall36-inchAndLargerPCCPMainsEmpiricalformulaRISKDefectsOperationalNeedsLandUseRISKRHDIKDON4LILFLandUseFactorLFRatingDescription0LimitedDamageCausedbyPipeRupture1HomeWaterDamagegreaterthan75ft.frompipeorDownStream2StructuralDamageLimiteduseRoad3MajorRoadLikelyFlooding4Homewithin75ft.ofPipePotentialStructuralDamage5CommercialFacilityLikelyWaterDamage6CommercialFacilitywithin75ftofPipe-PotentialStructuralDamage7MajorRoad-StructuralDamage8BridgeStructuralDamageKnownManufacturingDefectsKDRatingDescription1LapJointWeldPipeGreaterthan601ClassIII8gapre1991236andGreaterinDiameterLinedCylinderPipe3PouredConcreteCoating3ClassIVWire516Diameter4ClassIVWire14Diameter5ClassIVWire6gapost19776ClassIVWire6gapre19776ClassIVWire8gapost19777ClassIVWire8gapre19778GradeECylinderOperationalNeedsONRatingDescription1LocalEffectOnly2WaterRestrictionduringPeakDemand3WaterRestrictionduringNon-PeakDemand WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201451LastInspectionLIRatingDescription1Lessthan5Yearsago25to8YearsAgo39to12YearsAgo413to15YearsAgo516toneverDiameterDIRatingDescription036orless142to54460to66672to788Greaterthan78 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201452Appendix7.AProcessNarrative7.AProcessNarrativeOverviewThisappendixinintendedtoprovideanoverviewoftheapproachusedbytheconsultantsinfacilitatingtheworkoftheCommittee.7.A.1High-LevelProcessDescriptionandTimelineTheyearlongprocessoftheCommitteehashadseveralkeycomponentsEducationalBriefingAfterseveralmonthsofpreparatorygroundworkthisprocesswaskickedoffwithaneducationalbriefinginApril2013.WSSCsChiefEngineerGaryGummprovidedbackgroundontheissuesrelatingtoPCCPwatermainsWSSCs80-footsetbackproposalandthecreationoftheCommitteeandthefacilitatorsdescribedhowtheprocesswouldproceed.ThisbriefingwasestablishedatthestartoftheprocessgiventhatseveralworkgroupmembershadhadlittletonoinvolvementwithordirectknowledgeofthePCCPissueuptothatpointintime.InterviewsFollowingtheeducationalbriefinginterviewswereheldwitheachCommitteemembereachoftheWSSCCommissionersandselectotherstakeholders.TheseinterviewsweretypicallysixtytoninetyminutesinlengthandwereintendedtoestablishtherangeofinitialviewsonboththemagnitudeoftheproblemaswellasthemeritsofthethenproposedWSSCsolutionandotherpotentialsolutions.Intotalapproximately30interviewswerecompletedallbetweentheinitialeducationalbriefingandtheCommitteesfirstmeetinginJune2013.InterviewSynthesisWithalloftheinterviewscompletedtheconsultantscompletedasynthesisofthefindingsfromtheinterviews.TheobjectiveofthisworkwastorevealtherangeofinitialperspectivesonthisissuewithparticularattentiontotheareasofgreatestandleastagreementamongstakeholdersinordertodeterminethescopeandfocusoftheCommitteesdeliberations.Ratherthancreatingasingleinterviewsynthesistheconsultantssynthesizedtheresultsofindividualinterviewquestionsorrelatedsetsofquestions.TheseoutputswereprovidedacrossseveralmeetingsinsupportofdifferentaspectsoftheCommitteesworkplan.CommitteeMeetingsFollowingtheinterviewprocesstheCommitteeinitiatedthedeliberativepartofthisprocesswhichinadditiontotheEducationalBriefingwasanchoredby11meetingsheldfromJune2013toMarch2014eachfivetoeighthoursinduration.Itdevelopedaprocessandsetofmilestonesseebelowwhichguidedtheobjectivesandresultingagendasforthemeetings.ThisincludedaninitialfocusonsettingthefoundationforopenanddeliberativecollaborationdefiningthescopeandmagnitudeoftheproblemandassessingthesufficiencyofcurrentWSSCresponses.TheCommitteethenshifteditsfocustodefiningtheinterestsatstakeandtheframeworkforanassessmenttooltohelpwiththecostbenefitanalysis.ThroughoutitsdeliberationsawiderangeofpossibleresponsestotheproblemwereidentifiedandCommitteemembersengagedinafocusedvettingprocesstogenerateitsrecommendations.Finallythe WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201453Committeeimplementedaprocessforcollaborativelywritingthereportincludingaprocessforbriefingstakeholdersandincorporatingtheirfeedback.WorkgroupsInordertofacilitateitsworkaseriesofsmallworkgroupswerecreatedeachwithadiscretetaskandoutcome.Theroleandworkofthesegroupsisintegratedintotheprocessdescriptionthatfollows.ThepurposeandmembershipoftheworkgroupsisfurtheroutlinedinAppendix7.B.KeyMilestonesintheDeliberativeProcessThefollowinglistofprocessmilestonesrepresentthekeysubstantivefocusareasoftheworkguidedbytheCommitteesmissionandcharter.Thenarrativesummarythatfollowsisorganizedbythissetoftenmilestones.ProcessMilestoneTiming1LaythegroundworkforaneffectiveprocessJuneAugust20132DefinethescopeandmagnitudeoftheproblemJuneOctober20133AssessthesufficiencyofcurrentapproachesAugust20134DefinetheinterestsatstakeassessmentcriteriaAugustSeptember20135DevelopdiscusspotentialresponsestotheproblemAugustOctober20136GeneratecandidatesforrecommendationsOctoberNovember20137ResearchinterviewswithothercommunitiesNovember2013February20148ProvideastatusbriefingtotheCommissionDecember20139FinalizerecommendationsanddraftthereportJanuaryFebruary201410FinalizethereportMarchApril2014EngagementandCommitmentThiswasasignificantundertaking19high-levelleaderseachwithexistingongoingresponsibilitieswereengagedinayearlongcollaborativeprocess.ThemeetingswereopentothepublicpertheMarylandOpenMeetingsAct.Awebsitewasdevelopedaswellasmechanismsforin-betweenmeetingcommunication.Committeemembersremainedcommittedtolearningtechnicalissuesreadingreportsanddigestingtechnicalbriefings.Attendanceatthemeetingsexceededallexpectationsespeciallygiventheconsiderablelevelofresponsibilitythatthediverse19-memberAdHocCommitteemembershaveoutsidethisprocess.Eachmemberremainedfullyengagedinthesuccessoftheworksomegoingsofarastorescheduleotherimportantmeetingsinordertoattend.WSSCprovidedanableandsupportiveprojectmanagerMarkCoughlinwhokeptthewebsiteuptodateandassuredthattechnicaldetailsweremanagedproperly.WSSCGeneralManagerJerryJohnsoninhisformalroleasConveneroftheAdHocCommitteeattendedeverymeetingnotasanactiveparticipantbutasasupportandprovidedformal WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201454openingcommentswhenappropriateandrespondedtocommentssuggestionsandquestionswhenasked.7.A.2Milestone1LaytheGroundworkforanEffectiveProcessInordertosettheconditionsforaneffectivedeliberativeprocessanup-frontinvestmentoftimewasneeded.ThisworkinvolveddefiningamissioncharterandvisionfortheCommitteeaswellaslayingmoreoperationalfoundationsincludingasetofcommunicationsagreementsandasetofmeetingmechanics.Eachoftheseitemsisoutlinedbelow.MissionandCharterAmissionstatementwasdevelopedtoguidetheactionsoftheCommitteeandspelloutitsoverallgoalbyestablishingtheframeworkorcontextwithinwhichthestrategiesforsuccesscouldbeformulated.TheyalsodevelopedadetailedCharteroutliningthekeyaspectsofitsworkplan.TheCharterprovidedapathtorealizingitsMission.TheseimportantframeworksareincludedinSection1ofthereportandrepeatedinAppendix7.C.VisionoftheCommitteeTheCommitteewentthroughavisioningprocessinitsfirstmeeting.AVisionWorkGroupwasestablishedtodevelopandrecommendaVisionStatementtothecommitteeforitsconsideration.AVisionwasdevelopedintheformofareflectivedescriptionlookingbackwardsfromthefutureregardingwhatitwasabletoaccomplishthroughitswork.ThisreflectiveVisionwasheadlinedwiththefollowingGoodgovernmentthriveswithdiverseinterestsandopenexchange.MeetingMechanicsTheCommitteedevelopedasetofMeetingMechanicstoguidemeetingschedulingattendancesubstitutesandreplacementsobserverspre-andpost-meetingcommunicationmediainquiriesschedulingandnotificationofmeetingslocationsofmeetingsdresscodedocumentstorageandcommitteecommunication.InadditionthemeetingmechanicsaffirmedthatallmeetingswouldbegovernedbyMarylandsOpenMeetingsActthatrequiresamongotherthingsthatmeetingsbescheduledinadvancewithappropriatepublicnoticeandopentoobserversandthatminutesbetakenandpublishedwithinareasonabletimeperiod.MeetingMechanicsHighlightsincludeItwasnotedthatsubstitutionswouldcreatechallengestotheprocessandagreedthatobserverscouldnotserveasfullparticipants.InadditiontheyagreedthatmeetingmaterialswouldonlybedistributedtoCommitteemembersbutthattheywouldsharethemwiththeircolleagues. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201455Committeemembersalsoagreedtotakeresponsibilityforkeepingtheirorganizationsfullyinformedastheworkprogressessothatwhenthetimecomestovoteonrecommendationstherepresentativesofthestakeholderorganizationwouldbepreparedtodoso.CommunicationAgreementsTheCommitteedeveloped25groundrulesforeffectivecommunicationthatgovernedtheirresponsibilityincreatingapositivetoneandtenorintheircollaborativeprocessandweremeanttobeaguidefortheirbehaviorandinteractionswhetherinoroutofformalmeetings.ThefullsetofagreementswereframedbythefollowingaspirationsTokeepingcompletefocusandpresenceTokeepingthefocusonthefutureToexpressioninwaysthatsupportslearningandlevelstheplayingfieldacrossmultipleareasofexpertiseTocreatingasafeenvironmentforallTolisteninginwaysthatsupportslearningbylimitingassumptionsandshowingrespectPleaseseeAppendix7.DforthefulllistingoftheCommunicationsAgreements.Thefacilitatorswouldnotethatthissetofagreementswasmorerobustinnumberandqualitythaniscommonforthistypeofworkgroup.Manymembersnotedduringtheprocessthatthetoneandtenorofthesediscussionswasconstructiveandcollaborativeexceedingtheexpectationstheyhadgoingintothisprocess.TheCommitteesup-frontdiligenceonthesemattersseemstohavepaidoff.7.A.3Milestone2AnalyzetheProblemInordertorecommendsolutionstoaproblemtheCommitteefirstneededtocometoagreementonadefinitionoftheproblemaswellasanunderstandingofthesufficiencyofWSSCscurrentprogramsforaddressingit.Thisisreflectedinitems3and4inthecharter.TheworkintheseareaswaspredicatedontheideathatitcouldmakerecommendationonlyinthecontextofunderstandingthenatureandmagnitudeoftheproblemhowbigaproblemisthisandtheeffectivenessorlackthereofofWSSCsexistingapproachesinresponseareadditionalresponsesneeded.Theworkonanalyzingtheproblembeganintheinterviewprocessinwhichmemberswereaskedtoindicatewhetherornottheybelievedlarge-diameterPCCPfailuresrepresentedaproblemandifsohowlargeaproblem.Itisworthnotingthatatthisearlystageamultitudeofdiverseperspectivesemergedandtherewaslittleagreementonthisquestion.DeliberativediscussionsoftheproblembeganintheCommitteesinitialmeetinginJune2013andextendedinearnestthroughtheAugust2013meetingsintotheOctober2013meetings. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201456TosupportitsunderstandingoftheissueCommitteememberssatthroughtechnicalpresentationsreadanddiscussednumerousreportsissuedbyindustryexpertsandconsideredothersimilarlysituatedcommunitiesthroughoutthecountry.BasedonitsinitialunderstandingsofdifferentaspectsoftheproblemtheyprioritizedasetoftechnicalquestionsforWSSC.WSSCprovidedwrittenresponsestotheCommitteeandDavidBurkeP.E.WSSCsTechnicalServicesGroupLeaderalsobriefedtheCommitteeandfieldedadditionalquestions.ThroughthisworktheCommitteebecamefamiliarwithWSSCpoliciesandproceduresandwithphysicaldescriptionofpipelinecomponentsinformationthatwasessentialtounderstandingthedynamicsofthesystemandunderstandingitsfailures.CommitteememberscametounderstandthecharacterofthePCCPpipeswhytheyfailandhowtheyfailandtherangeofwaysthatWSSChashistoricallysoughttopreventbreaksandmitigatetheimpactsofthebreaksthatdooccur.ThislearningspannedmultipleaspectsincludingthefollowingThevariouspartsthatmakeupthesystemsuchasvalveselbowsjointsandteesTheoverallstructureofthesystemincludingvaryinglengthsanddiametersofpipesectionsphysicalcharacteristicsandlocationsofvalvesjointsandteesThevariousmaterialsthatmakeupthedifferentcomponentsinthesystemsuchassteelconcretePCCPductileandcastironthatthecompositionofthePCCPpipeswiththinconcretewallsandstrengthdegradationofthesteelwirereinforcementsresultsinthesuddenandexplosiveforcewhentheyfailThehistoryofPCCPandotherpipefailuresandthephysicaldynamicsimpactandcharacteristicsofthosefailuresWSSCsexistinginspectionandmonitoringstrategiesWSSCslong-rangeassetmanagementplanincludingphysicalassessmentofconditionbypipesectionmaintenanceandreplacementstrategiesandprogrammedpipesectionreplacementschedulesWSSCsriskmanagementpoliciesTheimpactimportanceofroleofbi-countylanduseandzoningpolicies.TheCommitteedemonstratedahigh-levelofinterestinandcommitmenttolearningatallphasesofthisprocessbutespeciallyinitsexaminationsoftheproblem.Withoutthiscommitmentitishardtoimaginethatthesolutionsdevelopmentphasewouldhavebeenasrobustandthoughtful.ProblemWorkGroupInordertoprocessthetremendousamountofmaterialreviewedanddiscussedontheproblemaworkgroupwasformedtoidentifythemostpertinentfactssothattheCommitteecouldreachconsensusonthenatureandmagnitudeofproblemsoallcommitteemembersareworkingfromthesameunderstandingofissues.TheProblemWorkGroupauthoredapaperthataggregatedandorganizedthepertinentinformationoutlinedaprioritizedsetofoutstandingquestionsandprovidedanoverarchingviewastothenatureoftheproblemandresultingimplicationsforsolutionsdevelopment. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201457VisualizationWorkGroupTheCommitteecametounderstandinitsanalysisoftheproblemthatthepotentialforagivenbreaktoputpeopleorpropertyinharmswayisinlargepartafunctionofthelocationofthepipeplusahostoffactorssurroundingtheenvironmentinwhichthepipeexistssuchastopography.Inordertobetterunderstandwherethelarge-diameterPCCParelocatedinrelationtocurrentandplanneddevelopmentintheCountiesandhowtoevaluatetopographicalandlocation-specificfactorsitlaunchedaninteragencygeospatialmappingexercisewiththeWSSCstaffsupportofPedroFlores.ThisinteragencymappingeffortresultedinthedevelopmentofaprototypeforaGISmappingtoolthatisthebasisforoneoftheCommitteesspecificrecommendations.307.A.4Milestone3AssesstheSufficiencyofCurrentApproachesInadditiontocomingtoanunderstandingofthenatureandscopeoftheproblemoflarge-diameterpipefailuretheCommitteealsoneededtocometoanunderstandingofhowWSSChasaddressedthisissueinthepastandcurrentlyinordertodeterminewhetherchangesoradditionstothecurrentprogramwouldmakesense.TheseunderstandingswouldenablethemtoanswerthequestionareadditionalriskreductionmeasuresadvisableInthecourseofitsdeliberationstheyreceivedseveralbriefingswithQAondifferentaspectsofWSSCscurrentandpastprogram.ThisincludedGaryGummsbriefingattheApril2013educationalbriefingtwobriefingsbyDavidBurkeoneinAugust2013ontheoverallassetmanagementprogramforPCCPandoneinJanuary2014focusedonriskassessmentandprioritizationandabriefingbyWSSCsinterimCFOontheSystemsDevelopmentCharge.TheseformalbriefingswereaugmentedbytheinformalcontributionstotheCommitteesunderstandingmadebyWSSCsthreeCommitteerepresentativesandJerryJohnsonwhocontributedtosomeofthediscussionsonaselectiveandrequestedbasis.InadditiontothebriefingstheCommitteewasfurnishedwithreadingmaterialsonWSSCscurrentandhistoricalapproaches.ThesecondaryandprimaryresearchonothercommunitiessupportedthisparticularmilestonebyenablingCommitteememberstocompareWSSCsapproachestoasetofcomparableotherwaterjurisdictions.Followingseveralworksessionsnumerouspresentationsanddiscussionsontheextensivevolumeofinformationmadeavailabletothemmembersconsideredwhethercurrenteffortsweresufficientorratherwhetheradditionalactionswouldbeadvisable.30SeeSection5.ARecommendation1. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014587.A.5Milestone4DefinetheInterestsatStakeCentraltothecharterofthisCommitteewastheideathatinterestswouldneedtobeclearlyarticulatedandusedtoassessthestrengthorweaknessofanypotentialsolutionsidentifiedwiththeideahopethattheywouldbeabletoidentifypotentialsolutionsthatmoreeffectivelybalancedthedesiretoreducetherisksassociatedwiththefailureofthesepipeswiththeotherimportantgoalsofthecountiesandotherkeystakeholders.SpecificallyClause5ofthecharteroutlinedasapartoftheworkadeterminationofthefullsetofstakeholderintereststhatwouldneedtobefactoredintotheconsiderationofanypotentialsolutionformitigatinganyrisksassociatedwithlargediameterwatermainsincludingforinstancepublicsafetyoperationalrequirementspropertyrightswaterratesandthelandusepoliciesgoalsandmasterplansofbothcounties.Clause7furtherstatedthatthecostbenefitconsiderationofidentifiedalternativeswouldtakeintoconsiderationandbalancesocialeconomicandfiscalstakeholderinterests.TheinterviewprocesscreatedthefirstopportunitytocatalogtheinterestsatstakewiththisissueaseachCommitteememberwasaskedtoindicatetheintereststheysawasimportanttoconsiderinthisprocess.Theresultsfromthisquestionweresynthesizedintolistingofinterestsatstake.WiththisasastartingpointtheyalsodevotedsomeofitsmeetingtimepartoftheOct9meetingtointerestsMemberspairedupandlistenedtooneanothertalkabouttheirkeyconcernsandinterestsandtheneachreportedoutonthekeyitemstheyheardexpressedbytheirpartner.Bothoftheseoutputstheinterviewsynthesisandthemeetingnotesweretakenasinputsinthedevelopmentofanassessmentframeworkwhichtheconsultantdraftedandonwhichmembersprovidededits.317.A.6Milestone5PotentialSolutionsDevelopmentThechartercallsforthedevelopmentofarobustsetofpotentialalternativesolutionsforpreventingandmitigatinganyidentifiedrisksassociatedwithlarge-diameterwatermainbreaks.ThecharterfurthercallsfortheevaluationofthecostsandbenefitsoftheseidentifiedalternativesandforthedeterminationofthesetofsolutionstobeputforwardasatoolkitorportfolioofrecommendedsolutionstotheWSSCCommission.TheCommitteegeneratedideasforpotentialsolutionsfromtheveryonsetofitswork.IntheinterviewprocessMemberswereaskedtoshareanyideasforpotentialsolutionsthattheyalreadyhadinmindthefacilitatorsconsolidatedtheideassharedintoasinglecompendiumandcategorizedthemintoaframeworkaccordingtodifferentaspectsofriskreductione.g.preventingbreaksversusmitigatingtheirimpacts.Throughouttheirdeliberationsthisframeworkbothguidedandreflectedtheideasdevelopedaspotentialsolutions.ThecompendiumbecamealivingdocumentthatgrewasnewideasweregeneratedinthecourseofthediscussionsthroughoutthecourseofthemeetingsthesizeofthePotentialSolutionsCompendiumroughlydoubledinlength.Allalongtheworkondevelopingadditionalpotentialsolutionswasnotmeanttoimplythattherewasaneedforadditionalsolutionstheproblemportionofthisprocesswas31TheessenceoftheframeworkisreflectedasthelistingofinterestsinSection4ofthereport. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201459meanttoestablishthisbuttheworkofgeneratingandcategorizingpotentialresponsescouldnotwaitforthispartoftheprocesstoreachitsconclusion.Manyoftheideascapturedinthecompendiumwerejustideaspotentialavenuestoconsiderthatwerequicklyrejectedasimpracticaloruneconomic.ItsalsoimportanttonotethatmanyverytechnicalideaswereputforwardbuttheCommitteedidntfeelqualifiedtodelvetoodeeplyintosomeofthemsuchasemergingmonitoringtechnologies.GaryGummprovidedongoingexpertiseregardingwhichoftheideaswerepossibleevenifalongstretchversuswhichneededtobetakenoffthetableasimpossiblenowandintotheseeablefuture.SolutionsWorkGroupASolutionsWorkGroupwasestablishedtosupportthefacilitatorsindeterminingthemostoptimalapproachforthecommitteetogenerateandevaluatepotentialsolutions.Theworkgroupplayedakeyroleinaffirmingthesolutionsframeworkwhichoutlinedthebroadcategoriessub-topicstobeaddressedbythecommitteeandwhichprovidedstructureforitsrecommendations.TheworkgroupalsoplayedaroleindevelopinganddescribingtheideasforconsiderationrelatedtoBuildingandLandUseRuleandRegulationsandinexploringthefeasibilityofWSSCdevelopingperformancestandardswhichwerediscussedandultimatelyrejectedbytheCommittee.7.A.7Milestone6ResearchonOtherCommunitiesTosupportitsanalysisoftheproblemandasaninputtodevelopingandfinalizingitsrecommendationstheCommitteeconductedresearchoncomparableothercommunitieswhichhaveexperiencedsimilarchallengeswithlarge-diameterPCCP.Thisworkincludedasecondaryresearchphasetoidentifycandidatesofothercommunitiestostudy.Fromalargersetofapproximately40othercommunitiesidentifiedbysecondaryresearchsevenwereselectedforprimaryresearchBaltimoreDallasFairfaxCountyLouisvilleMetropolitanWaterDistrictofSouthernCaliforniaPhoenixandSanDiego.ThesesevenwereselectedbecausetheybestmetthefollowingcriteriawhichtheCommitteedefined1Significantexposuretolarge-diameterPCCPorahistoryofproblemsbreaksinthepast2ThewaterutilityservesacommunitywithanurbanandsuburbancharacterofsomesimilaritytoWSSCsserviceareaand3TheyrepresentotherlargewaterutilitiesforcomparabilitytoWSSC.Informationfromthesesevenothercommunitieswascollectedintheformofeitherinterviewsorwrittenresponsestothesurveyquestions.Theinterviewguidesurveyincludedmorethan35questionsfocusedonhowtheseothercommunitieshaverespondedtothelarge-diameterPCCPissue.ResearchonOtherCommunitiesWorkGroupAResearchWorkGroupwasformedtosupporttheconsultantinguidingthesecondaryandprimaryresearchactivitiestolearnwhatothercommunitiesaredoingtopreventlargediameterPCCPwatermainbreaksmitigatetheimpactofthosebreaksandmanagethedisruptioncausedbysuchbreaks.TheworkgroupwasinvolvedinidentifyingcomparablecommunitiesnationwidedesigninganinterviewprotocolconductinginterviewsandreportingbacktheresultstohelpinformtheCommitteesrecommendations. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201460PleaseseeAppendices8.Aand8.Bforthekeyfindingsandresearchprofilesfromthisresearcheffort.7.A.8Milestone7StatusBriefingInDecember2013theconsultantprovidedastatusbriefingtotheWSSCCommissionersaspartofitsDecembermeeting.ThebriefingprovidedanupdateontherobustengagementoftheCommitteetheongoingoutputsoftheworkgroupsthedeliberationscompletedtodatethebroadareasofagreementandworkremainingtobedone.Committeemembersprovidedinputtothescopeandfocusofthestatusupdateandweregiventheopportunitytoreviewandcommentonthedrafttalkingpoints.7.A.9Milestone8DevelopmentofDraftRecommendationsAsdescribedabovetheCommitteedevelopedabroadsetofpotentialresponsestotheissueoflarge-diameterPCCPfailures.StartingfromthisbroadersettheCommitteeworkedtodevelopasetofrecommendations.Toarriveatitsrecommendationscollectivejudgmentwasusedtoidentifythesubsetofsolutionsmostalignedwithitsconclusionsregardingthenatureandscopeoftheproblemandofferingthebestoverallprofileofbenefitsversuscosts.Thiswasadeliberativeprocessnotadeeplyanalyticaloneinthesensethattherewasforinstancenoanalysisofthecosttoimplementtheserecommendations.ItwasalsonotsetupasastructuredreviewprocessinthatitdidnotinvolveanykindofformalgradingofpotentialsolutionsusinganassessmentframeworkversusamoreinformalconsiderationoftherelevantfactorsbothbecauseafinalassessmenttoolwasnotcreatedduetobudgetconstraintsandbecausetheCommitteevocallypushedbackonanyfurtherinvestmentinprocessversusgettingintothesubstantivedialoguearoundpotentialsolutionstotheproblem.Itwasthroughthedeliberativeprocessastheappropriatenessofthesolutionswasconsideredandtheperceivedcostsandbenefitswerefactoredinthatfinalrecommendationswereselected.ThiswasaprocessthatspannedseveraloftheCommitteesmeetingsincludingthemeetingsinNovemberandJanuary.7.A.10Milestones9and10DraftingandFinalizingtheReportWorkondraftingthereportbeganwiththeformationofaReportWritingWorkGroup.IncollaborationwiththefacilitatorstheReportWritingWorkGrouptookresponsibilityforwritingandeditingthefirstdraftofreportaswellassynthesizingCommitteecommentsandidentifyingthehighlevelissuesthatneededfullattention.ThisworkgroupbeganitsworkinDecember2013todevelopanoutlineforthereportandaprocessfordraftingit.Sections1-4ofthereportweredraftedbymembersoftheReportWritingWorkGroupandfirstsharedwiththebroaderCommitteeinmidFebruary2014.TheRecommendationSectionswereshapedinandaroundtheJanuary31meetingwiththecreationofthreerecommendation-writingteamswithafirstdraftofthethreeRecommendationSectionscirculatedtotheCommitteeonFebruary26.TheReportWritingWorkGroupestablishedatriageapproachforprocessingthecommentsreceivedfromCommitteemembers WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201461acceptingcommentsthatweregrammaticalinnatureandthosethatclarifiedtheintentoftheCommittee.Therewerecommentsthatsurfacedhoweverthatcontradictedeachotherorthathadnotsurfacedorbeendiscussedthoroughlyinthemeetings.Thesecommentsbecameknownasissues.TheheartoftheFebruary28meetingagendawasresolvingthoseissuesthatsurfacedintheCommitteeswritingandinitialreviewofthedrafts.FollowingtheFebruary28meetingthefacilitatorsworkinginpartnershipwiththeReportWritingWorkGroupaswellasrecommendation-writingteamsgeneratedsecondandthirddraftsofthereporttakingintoconsiderationtheCommitteesfeedbackandagreementsreachedinthecourseoftheFebruary28meeting.ThethirddraftofthereportwasconsideredashareabledraftadraftreadytobesharedbeyondtheCommitteewithotherstakeholders.Committeemembersweregivenatwo-weekperiodinwhichtobrieftheirkeystakeholdersonthereportandtobringbacktheirfeedbackintothereportfinalizationprocess.TheMarch31meetingwasthefinalmajormilestoneinthereportwritingandfinalizationprocess.Takingintoconsiderationthefeedbackfrommembersandtheirstakeholdersthefacilitatorssetanagendaoffinalissuestoberesolvedinthereport.Theresultsfromthismeetingandensuringeditorialroundsarereflectedinwhatisnowafinalreport.TheCommissionwasbriefedontheCommitteesfindingsandrecommendationsonApril162014andthefinalreportwasdeliveredtotheWSSCCommissiononApril302014. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201462Appendix7.BPurposeandMembershipofWorkgroupsWorkgroupPurposeMembersProblemWorkgroupSynthesizewhatweknowandwhatweneedtoknowabouttheproblemdrawingonthecommitteesdiscussionsandtechnicalinformationprovidedtothecommittee.WorkwithWSSCtoanswerkeytechnicalquestionsthatneedtobeaddressedforthecommitteetohavesufficientunderstandingoftheproblem.ErvBeckertJudeBurkeDianeJonesVisualizationWorkgroupDevelopasetofmapsthatintegratemultipleGISlayersfromdifferentagenciesrepresentedontheCommitteetohelpunderstandwherelarge-diameterPCCPareinrelationtocurrentandplannedabovethegrounddevelopment.Determinewhatthistellsthecommitteeaboutthenatureoftheproblem.GaryGummRoseKrasnowRupertMcCaveFernPiretCraigShumanSolutionsWorkgroupSupportthefacilitatorsindeterminingthemostoptimalapproachfortheCommitteeforgeneratingandevaluatingpotentialsolutionstotheproblem.SupporttheworkofsynthesizingandcategorizingideasgeneratedbytheCommittee.VincentBergMarleneMichaelsonShaunPharrJohnSchlichtingResearchWorkgroupLookattheapproachesofotherjurisdictionstoseehowsimilarordifferenttheyarerelativetotheWSSCsapproach.TakealeadroleinreviewingthesecondaryresearchconductedbythefacilitatorreportingbacktotheCommitteewithitsimpressionstakeawaysandsuggestednextsteps.DianeJonesVirginiaSheardLauraSwisherReportWritingGroupSupporttheconsultantsindraftingandeditingthevarioussectionsofthereportandindevelopingandexecutingtheoverallapproachtothereportwritingandeditingprocess.Provideguidanceonstylisticissuesofthereportcreationsuchastheoutlineformatanduseoffootnotes.CarolRubinVirginiaSheardLauraSwisher WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201463Appendix7.CMissionandCharterMissionThefollowingMissionStatementwasdevelopedtoguidetheactionsoftheCommitteeandspelloutitsoverallgoalbyestablishingtheframeworkorcontextwithinwhichtheCommitteesstrategiesforsuccesscouldbeformulated.TheWSSCAdHocCommitteewasformedwiththegoalofbringingtogetherthekeystakeholderstoassistWSSCinanopenandcollaborativedeliberationtoconsidertherisksassociatedwithlarge-diameterwatermainbreakswithrespecttoexistingcommunitiesandnewdevelopmentandredevelopmentprojects.ThelargediameterwatermainsattheheartofthisCommitteesworkaretransmissionmainswithdiameters36andlargermadeofPCCP145milesofpipeandCastIron18milesofpipewhichareknowntofailinstantaneouslywithexplosiveforce.TheCommitteeischargedwithdevelopingasetoffullyinformedrecommendationstosubmittotheWSSCCommissionersforhowtopreventandmitigateanyriskstodayandintothefutureassociatedwiththefailureofthesepipes.CharterTheCommitteealsodevelopedadetailedCharteroutliningthekeyaspectsofitsworkplan.TheCharterprovidedapathtorealizingitsMission.The11-pointcharterisasfollows1.WorkcollaborativelywiththefacilitatortonametheCommitteeaffirmsitsmissionanddevelopaworkplanthatwillenabletheCommitteetofulfillitsmission.2.WorkcollaborativelywiththefacilitatortodevelopasetofgroundrulesthatenabletheCommitteetoproceedinamannerthatisfairinclusionaryandopen.3.Understandthenaturemagnitudeandextentoftheproblemoflarge-diameterwatermainbreaksbyconsideringandunderstandingthelikelihoodofbreaksintheWSSCtransmissionsystemandtheirconsequenceswithrespecttopublicsafetypropertydamageandotherfactors.4.IdentifyWSSCapproachescurrentlyinplaceandassessthesufficiencyofthecurrentapproachestomitigatetherisksoffailureincludingcurrentsetbackstandardsandinspectionandmonitoringprograms5.Determinethefullsetofstakeholderintereststhatmayneedtobefactoredintotheconsiderationofanypotentialsolutionformitigatinganyrisksassociatedwithlargediameterwatermainsincludingforinstancepublicsafetyoperationalrequirementspropertyrightswaterratesandthelandusepoliciesgoalsandmasterplansofbothcounties.6.Developarobustsetofalternativesolutionsforpreventingandmitigatinganyidentifiedrisksassociatedwithlarge-diameterwatermainbreaksthatapplytoexistingcommunities WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201464andnewdevelopmentandredevelopmentprojectsincludingWSSCs80-footsetbackproposal.7.Evaluatethecostsandbenefitsofidentifiedalternativestakingintoconsiderationandbalancingsocialeconomicandfiscalstakeholderinterests.8.LeverageCommitteemembersCommitteememberagenciesandexternalresourcestoprovidetechnicalsupporte.g.professionalexpertiseinstructuralengineeringdesignconstructionandlandusewhereneededbytheCommitteetomakeafullyinformeddecision9.BasedontheseconsiderationsdeterminethesetofsolutionstorecommendtotheWSSCCommissionthattogetherasaportfoliotoolboxofsolutionsrepresenttheCommitteesviewofthebestoverallapproachrecommendationsmayalsoincludeimplicationsforinteragencyimplementationincludinginteragencyagreementsandpotentialchangesinpolicy10.ProvidetheWSSCCommissionerswithawrittenreportoftheCommitteesfindingsandrecommendationsincludingidentifiedstakeholderinterestscostandbenefitsofrecommendedapproachesandrolesandresponsibilitiesofstakeholdersinimplementinganyrecommendationinanyareaswhereconsensuscannotbeachievedthereportshouldreflectthereasonstheCommitteewasunabletoreachconsensus11.AimtoprovidetheWSSCCommissionerswithaninterimreportoftheCommitteesfindingsandrecommendationsfortheirthoughtfulconsiderationanddeliberationbefore31December2013andaimforafinalreportbefore31March2014 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201465Appendix7.DCommunicationAgreementsThissetofagreementsismeanttobeaguideforourbehaviorandinteractionswhetherinoroutofformalCommitteemeetings.Ourcommitmentstocompletefocusandpresence1.Bepresentandengageda.Takecallsoutofroomb.Trytousephoneslaptopsatbreaksonlyexceptfornotetakingc.Nosideconversations.butjokesaregoodandgoodtoshared.GlancingforurgentemailsisOKintheroombuttaketheresponseout2.Doourhomework3.BecommittedtolearningOurcommitmentstohavingourfocusonthefuture4.Keepthevisioninfocus5.Beforward-lookinginourfocusdonotdwellonthepast6.Trusttheprocess7.BepatientwiththeprocessOurcommitmentsonhowweexpressourselves8.Beclearandassuccinctaspossible--nospeeches9.Stayontopic10.Provideanequalvoiceforeveryoneeveryoneintheroomhassomethingimportanttoofferevennon-technicalparticipantsintechnicaldiscussions11.Allowforspiralingofdiscussion-GetcommentsthatarefollowuptocurrentcommentorquestionbeforemovingthroughqueuetootherquestionsOurcommitmentsoncreatingasafeenvironment12.Feelsafetovocalizeourowninterests13.Beopenandforthrightwithanyconcerns14.BerespectfulandunderstandingoffrustrationsthatmaycomethroughOurcommitmentsonhowwelistentoeachother15.Respectoneanother16.Trustintheintentionsofotherstowardsthevisiontrustthatthereispositiveintent17.Putyourselfintheotherpersonsshoesseektounderstandtheirinterestsandperspective18.Askquestionsofoneanother19.Bewillingtohearthespokenandunspokenofwhatpeoplearesaying20.Beopentotestingassumptionsandchangingyourmind21.Keepanopenmindanddontjumptoconclusions WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201466Appendix8.AKeyFindingsfromtheResearchonOtherJurisdictions1.ProximityofPCCPtodevelopmentquestion2Thesecommunitiesstudiedindicatethatthevastmajorityoftheirlarge-diameterPCCPrestinproximitytoroadsandbuildingsandotherformsofdevelopmentWSSCisnotuniqueinthis2.Redundancyquestion4ThemajorityofthesecommunitiesindicatesomedegreeofredundancyinsomepartsofthesystemandlimitedredundancyinothersWSSCappearstohaveatleasttheredundancyastheseothercommunitiesifnotmore3.Perspectiveontheproblemquestion6Themajorityofthesecommunitiesseelarge-diameterPCCPasamajorconcernwithafewlessconcernedthedifferenceseemsatleastpartyexplainedbythenumberofandseverityofbreaksexperiencedfirsthand4.Stakeholderengagementquestion7TodatenoneoftheseothercommunitieshaveundertakenaneffortakintothisAdHocCommitteeintermsofengagingotherstakeholderstodiscusslargePCCPbreakageandpolicyonereasonmaybethatmostotherwaterutilitiesarepartoflocalgovernment5.Overallapproachquestion8VirtuallyallofthesecommunitieshavemadebreakpreventioninspectionsmonitorrepairreplacementthecenteroftheirstrategyfordealingwithlargePCCPbreakage6.Inspectionandtestingquestions9a-cApproachesusedforpipeinspectionareroughlythesameacrosstheseothercommunitiesandWSSCregardinginspectionfrequencymostcommunitiesoperatewithina5-10yearintervalwhileSanDiegoindicatesa3-yeargoalforPCCPnotmonitoredbyAcousticFiberOpticAFOtechnology7.Monitoringquestion9dLessthanhalfoftheutilitiesareusingAcousticFiberOpticAFOtechnologythoughitiscommonlycitedasthebestpracticeforPCCPmonitoring8.Riskassessmentquestion9eBaltimorehasanapproachtoriskassessmentthatplacessignificantweightingonabovethegroundfactorssuchasthepotentialsocialandeconomicconsequencesofabreak9.Pipereplacementquestions11and15Amajorlong-termPCCPreplacementstrategyisinplaceintwoofthecommunitiesstudiedMetropolitanWaterDistrictofSouthernCaliforniawhichplanstorepairorreplaceasignificantportionofitsPCCP100milesovera20-yearperiodandSanDiegowhichhasapprovedfundingupto780milliontoaddressandrepairPCCPthesewaterdistrictsareinearthquakezonesthisstrategyrepresentsasignificantdifferencefromWSSCscurrentapproach10.Workingwithdevelopersquestions16and22DirectengagementwithdevelopersinthecourseofthedevelopmentprocessispracticedintwocommunitiesstudiedPhoenixandFairfaxthesecommunitiesdonothavespecificrequirementsoutsideoftherightofwaythoughtheyoperatewithunofficialsetbacktargetsanddevelopersareencouragedtorespondtotherisksofPCCPfailureandappeartobedoingso WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320146711.RightsofWayquestion20SanDiegoinvestsinprotectingitsrightofwaylookingatissuessuchasgradingtreeplantinganddeckconstructiontoensuretheirrightofwayisbeingprotected12.Buildingstandardsquestion20Noneofthecommunitiesstudiedindicatethattheyhaveanyformofbuildingperformancestandardsinplaceeitheroptionalorrequired13.Valvesquestion21SanDiegomaintainsanactivevalveinspectionprogramthatverifiesvalvelocationsandensuresclearaccesstothemtheyhavevalvesvisuallymarkedabovethegroundsotheyareeasytofindwhenneeded14.ResponsePlansquestion23Nonehavespecificplansifthewaterutilityispartofcitygovernmenttheirapproachisincorporatedintothecityscommunicationplan WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201468Appendix8.BInterviewSurveyResponsesfromSevenOtherJurisdictionsNoteOnlythoseresponseswherepermissiontopublishhasbeenreceivedareincluded.GENERAL-BACKGROUND1.Howmanymilesoflargediameter36andlargerPCCPpipesareinyourwatersystemWSSC145mileswhichincludes77milesof48andgreaterplus68milesof36and42.Phoenix42-62andlargerupto108-150mileswhichwasbuiltasfarbackas50s-60swith32milesinstalledbetween70sand80s.MostofitbuiltinPhoenixitselfbyAmeronInternationalsoitdidnthavefartotravel.SanDiego82milesBaltimorePublicWorksApproximately90milesDallas350miles-rawandpotable.2.Howmanymilesarelocatedwithin50-100feetofroadsresidentialcommercialindustrialorinstitutionalstructuresHowdenseisconstructionwithinthatareaifanyWSSCThespecificmileagehasnotbeenestimatedhoweverthemajorityoflargediameterPCCPislocatedindevelopedareaswithin50-100feetandlessofroadsresidentialcommercialindustrialandinstitutionalstructures.Thedensityofconstructionwithintheseareasvariesfromaroadwaywithlittletonodevelopmenttohighdensitymulti-storybuildingsinurbansettings.PhoenixAllofitisbuiltaroundcommercialresidentialareasadjacenttoroadwaysandineasements.NoconsistentdensitySanDiegoThemajorityofPCCPislocatedwithin50-100feetofroadsresidentialcommercialindustrialorinstitutionalstructures.Onlyabout14-miles17-percentislocatedoutsidethesecriteria.Thedenseconstructionislocatedalong52-miles63-percentofPCCPofwhich34-mileshavebeenrehabilitated.Theremaining16-miles20-percentarelocatedwithinmediumtolightdensityareas.BaltimorePublicWorksNADallas235Miles.Itvariesconsiderably.3.Whathasbeentherecentlast10-15yearsbreakhistoryoflargediameterPCCPinyoursystemHowmanybreakshavetherebeenWhathavebeensomeoftheconsequencesofthesebreakse.g.propertydamageinjurytopeoplelossofwaterserviceandforhowlong WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201469WSSCWSSChashad6PCCPfailuressince2001last10to15years.1ConnecticutAve60inMar.20132HamptonRd54inJan.20113TolsonRd.42inJan.20094RiverRd.66inDec.20085MeadowsideLn.48inJune20086AllentownRd.42inSept.2001Twonoteworthyrecentbreaksincludethe66-inchRiverRoadbreakwhichoccurredduringmorningrushhouralongtheedgeofRiverRoadjustbefore800a.m.ThebreakcreatedatorrentofwatercascadingdownRiverRoadaverybusycommuterroadtrappingseveralpeopleintheircarswhichrequiredahelicopterandbasketrescue.TheflowwentintoCabinJohnBranchstreamandcausedextensivepropertydamagetotheroadwaywhichrequiredthismajorroadtobeclosedforrepairsfornearly2weeks.ThesecondnoteworthyfailurewastheHamptonRoad54whichfailedapproximately300to400a.m.nearly50feetfromastriptypecommercialbuildingwhichhousedachurch.Thewatercreatedmajordamagetothebuildingbreakingouttheglassstorefrontsandwashedoutthecontentsofthechurchandadjacentbusinesses.Nodeathsorseriousinjurieswerereportedineithercase.Waterservicewasnotlostineithercaseduetosystemredundancy.Phoenix3breaksOnepieceof48pipebrokeatthesiphonsasitwasnotbuiltasperthedrawing.Itwasrepairedbutbrokeagainwithinayear20032004.Weendeduprelocatingthepipelineandusedductileiron.A60maininanindustrialareabrokeduetoseverecorrosion.Itfloodedabout5-6blocks-cost7Million.Therewasafairamountofdamageinthearea2006Aleakin60mainontheoutskirtsofanindustrialareanearwarehouseswithashackbehindit.Itappearedtohavebeendamageduringinstallation.Ithadbeenpatchedupbuteventuallystartedaleak.Itdidntrupturebeforerepair2013SanDiegoRecently2breaksin2006and2008.Bothfailuresoccurredinarivervalleylocatedinalargeopenspaceenvironmentalpreserve.The2006failureoccurredonahillsidecauseddeeperosionofthesoilandwashedouttheadjacentpipelines.ThefailurerequiredsignificantenvironmentalmitigationatthebreakanddownstreamalongtheSanDiegoRiver.Thebreakalsorequiredreconfigurationofthepipelinesystem.Thetablebelowshowsabreakdownofcostsfortherepairanddamagecausedbyeachfailure.FailureYear2006SettingRuralDamageRepairCosts2600000Costs20132900000FailureYear2008SettingRuralDamageRepairCost1100000 WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201470Costs20131200000The2008failureoccurredinthesamerivervalleyhoweveritwasclosertotheriverandtheerosionwaslimited.Thepipelinesegmentsintherivervalleywerethenrelinedsoonafter.BaltimorePublicWorksTherehavebeenseveralvisiblecatastrophicfailuresthathaveresultedinlossofpropertyandsubsequentlawsuits.DallasWehaveabout1breakevery2yearsand8breaksinall.Breakisdefinedasafailure.Wehavehadpropertydamagebutminimallossofwaterandlengthoutofservice.4.DoesyoursystemhaveredundancyalternativepipelinesforlargediametertransmissionpipesWSSCIngeneralthelargediameterPCCPwatertransmissionmainshaveredundancywhichallowsthemtobeoutofservicecontinuouslyduringthenon-peakdemandmonthsofOctoberthroughJune.Thereareafewpipelinesthatcannotbeoutofserviceforthisextendedperiodnotedabovewithoutcreatinganoperationalissue.IngeneralWSSCavoidssmallersubdivisionconnectionstotransmissionsmains.InthecaseswheresmallerconnectionstoPCCPmainsexistaspartofthe5yearplanwatermainextensionsandloopswerearebeingbuilttoprovideredundancyfortheseareas.PhoenixWedohavesometypeofredundancyin75insomeoftheareas.3ofourhighcriticalitypipesdonothaveredundancy.Theonewherewehavethe7milliondollarsindamagehadaredundantmainbuiltinthearea.Itwasjustamatterofmakingtheconnectiontothesmallerpipes.SanDiegoInsomecasesthereisredundancyandinothercasesredundancyislimitedorthereisnoredundancyBaltimorePublicWorksIngeneralno.DallasYeswiththeexceptionof1-2.OVERARCHINGPERSPECTIVE5.HasyourwaterauthoritymadepolicydecisionchangestoaddresslargePCCPconcernsWSSCYes.1Implementationofthe5-YearPlanunderthePCCPManagementProgramwithanannualgoalofinspectionandrepairof18milesandinstallationofpermanentAFOmonitoringofallmains36andlarger2CurrentPipelineDesignManualguidelinesrequirespecialdesignconsiderationforbuildingswithin200feetofPCCPwatermains3Currentproposalforan80footsetbackofbuildingsfromPCCPmains36andlarger.PhoenixPolicydecisionstofigureoutaprogramtoinspectandmonitorpipesandrehabilitateorrepairasneeded. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201471SanDiegoYessignificantpolicydecisionstoassessandrepairorreplacePCCPbeforefailures.TheBoardhasapprovedfundingofupto780milliontoaddressandrepairPCCP.BaltimorePublicWorksYesweareimplementingaproactiveassessmentandmonitoringprogram.Immediateneedswillberepairedontheheelsofinspection.DallasNo.6.AreLargePCCPbreakagesseenasarelativelyminorissueorrelativelymajoroneWSSCLargediameterPCCPbreakagesorfailuresareseenasamajorissuedueto1thepublicsafetyissueinareaswherethewatermainsareclosetodevelopment2operationalissuesthatcanbecreatedduetheunplannedwateroutageaswellasthepossibleimpactonthesurroundingcommunityduetothewateroutageand3theeconomicimpactofthecostoftherepairitselfaswellasthepossibleeconomicimpactonclosedbusinessesschoolsmedicalfacilitiesetc.4Lossofpublicconfidence.PhoenixRelative-the2006casewasamajorissueastherewasquitealotofdamagebutothershavebeenminor.Ifwedonthaveredundancyitbecomesahigherissue.Itdependsonthesituation.SanDiegoTheyareseenasamajorissuesincebreaksresultincommunitiespotentiallybeingoutofwater.BaltimorePublicWorksMajor.DallasMajoreventwithmediaactivity.7.Hasyourauthorityengagedotherstakeholdersinthecommunityincludinglocalgovernmentspropertydeveloperscitizensgroupsschoolsystemsetc.todiscusslargePCCPpipebreakageandanypolicydecisionsrelativetosuchbreakageandifsohowWSSCYesbytheformationoftheAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMains.PhoenixNo.SanDiegoTheBoardisawareoftheprogramforPCCPandhaspublicizedeffortstoalimitedextent.Alsoduringindividualrehabilitationprojectsstaffwillengagethecommunityandotherstakeholdersregardingtheneedoftheprojectandprojectimpacts.BaltimorePublicWorksSinceBaltimoreCountyisacostshareparticipantwehaveengagedthem.Astheprogramgetsmoreunderwayweplantobemorevocalaboutourprogress.DallasNo. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014728.WhatisyourapproachtodealingwithLargePCCPbreakagewhatisthefocusE.g.monitoringandrepairsystematicreplacementorreinforcementlandusepolicypublicawarenessemergencyresponseetc.WSSC1Implementationofthe5-YearPlanunderthePCCPManagementProgramwithanannualgoalofinspectionandrepairof18milesandinstallationofpermanentAFOmonitoringofallmains36andlarger2ProactiveresponsetoAFOmonitoringactivityandinterventionstoshutdownpipelineswithintolerableAFOactivityandmakerepairsasamaintenanceoremergencyactivity3CurrentPipelineDesignManualguidelinesrequirespecialdesignconsiderationforbuildingswithin200feetofPCCPwatermains4Currentproposalforan80footsetbackofbuildingsfromPCCPmains36andlarger.5ImplementationofacommunicationplantoinformthepubliciftheyaredirectlyimpactedbyapendingfailureorwateroutageduetoaPCCPshutdownthroughnecessarymediasourcesandcoordinateemergencyresponseplanswithlocalagencies.6PublicationofWSSCPCCPSetbackStudyPCCPSetbackPositionPaperPresentationstoCountyCouncilsandotherPCCPinformationontheWSSCWebsiteavailabletothegeneralpublic.PhoenixMonitoringandrepairandoncewegetthroughthemonitoringandassessmentthenwelookatamultiprongedreplacementprogram.SanDiegoAcombinationofmonitoringrepairandsystematicrehabilitationreinforcementbasedonrisk.WewillalsopursueacquiringadditionalROWwhenavailableinnarrowROWcorridors.BaltimorePublicWorksWhenamainbreaksthefocusisminimizingcollateraldamageandinterruptionofservice.Operationallythefocusisonrepairingthedamagedpipeaswellasassessingtherestofthelinetoensureanotherstickofsamevintagepipesnotonthebrinkoffailure.DallasInspectionandRepairrehab.PREVENTIONREDUCINGTHENUMBEROFBREAKS9.WhatdoesyourutilitydotodetectproblemsinitslargediameterpipesWSSC1Implementationofthe5-YearPlanunderthePCCPManagementProgramwithanannualgoalofinspectionandrepairof18milesandinstallationofpermanentAFOmonitoringofallmains36andlarger2Proactive247monitoringandresponsetoAFOmonitoringactivityandinterventionstoshutdownpipelineswithintolerableAFOactivityandmakerepairsasamaintenanceoremergencyactivity.Phoenix1.2011WedevelopedaprogramthatrunsannuallyfromOct15toApril14tocheckinspectcriticalpipelinesweattempttoscheduleinspectionsatthistimebasedontheweather.Wehada3-yearprogramtoinspectourcritical32milesofpipe.Thefirstpartofourprogramwasforpipesthatwerebuiltbetween1970and WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320147380thatareundertheinfluenceofwetanddrycyclessuchasthecanalthatcausedourSuperiorbreak.2.Workinghighpressures-Wehavesomepipesthatarehighpressurewhichifitrupturedwouldcausesignificantdamage.Weshouldhaveabout61milesinspectedin3yearsbecausewehadalotofotherreasonstotakepipesdown.Wehadreservoirsthatweregoingtobeoutofserviceandsincethemainwasoutofservicewhynotinspectwehadtotakepipedownstobuildstormdrainssowhynotinspectthemandothersuchreasons.SanDiegoSeeresponses9a-eBaltimorePublicWorksTheproactiveinspectionprogramwillbeginFall2014.DallasRoboticmannedinspectionevery4to5years.9a.WhatisthefrequencyorschedulewithwhichlargerdiameterpipesareinspectedWSSCThescheduleforinspectionsismanagedundera5YearPlanupdatedannually.Mains48andlargerarere-inspectedevery5to7yearsdependingonthelevelofAFOwire-breakactivityrecorded.Mains36and42areinspectedevery8to10yearsandre-inspectionswillbebasedonan8to10yearcycledependingonthelevelofAFOwirebreakactivityrecorded.PhoenixPlanfortherestofthepipesistoschedulewhenwecantakethemoutofserviceanddoallthetestshutdowns.Weareaimingfor5years.Basedontheinitialassessmentswewilllookatthenextphase.SanDiegoWeutilizerealtimemonitorPCCPwirebreakactivitywithseveralAcousticFiberOpticAFOsystems.ForpipeswhicharemonitoredwithAFOsystemsthefrequencyofinspectionisperiodicbasedondeterioration.Fornon-monitoredpipethegoalistoinspectevery3years.Forsteelpipeandotherpipetypesthegoalistoinspectevery10years.WearebeginningtoassesssteelpipelineswithMagneticFluxLeakagetechnologytomeasurecorrosionofsteelnon-destructively.WherefacilitiesaretakenoutofserviceduetoaCIPstaffwillconductaninspectionofadjacentfacilitiestoassesscurrentconditionandidentifyadditionalmaintenance.WhatdoseeasbestpracticeAsneededforpipeswithAFO.3to5yearsforallPCCPwithoutAFO.BaltimorePublicWorksTheproactiveinspectionprogramwillbeginFall2014.Dallas5years. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay132014749b.HowmanymilesperyearareinspectedWSSC18milesperyearwhichincludes10milesofre-inspectionofmains48-inchandlargerand8milesofinspectionof36and42mains.Phoenix61mileswillbeinspectedbyMay2015outofthe150miles.Wearetryingtoplanfor20milesperyear.SanDiegoItvariesbutapproximately10to20-milesperyear.BaltimorePublicWorksThegoalistoinspect10milesayear.Dallas5to12.9c.WhattechniquesareusedforinspectionsWSSCMains48andlargeraremannedinspectionsusingelectromagneticvisualandsoundingandsonicultrasonicNDTandincludeacousticalleaktestingandinertialGISmapping.Mains36and42areroboticinspectionsusingelectromagneticandvisualcamerainspectionandincludeacousticalleaktestingandinertialGISmapping.BeginninginFY2014inspectionsincludeanabovegroundrightofwayWSSCwalkoverandconcentratedinternalmappingandinspectionofallpipeswithfactoryinstalledoutlets.Allre-inspectionsalsoincludeaninspectionofAFOmonitoringcablehardwarepriorrepairssuchascarbonglassfibercompositerepairsandpriorjointrepairs.PhoenixElectromagneticCorrosionpotentialofsoilVisualandsoundinginspectionsSanDiegoVisualinspectionsbootsongroundandroboticlimitedsoundingRemoteFieldEddyCurrentinspectionultrasonicthicknesstestingandMagneticFluxLeakage.BaltimorePublicWorksVisualacousticandelectromagnetictechnologies.DallasEMandVisual.9d.Whatifanymonitoringandorinspectiontechnologye.g.acousticfiberopticultrasoundroboticinspectionsetc.isusedforlargediameterPCCPHowmuchofthesystemiscurrentlycoveredbymonitoringinspectionWSSCAll77milesofmains48andlargerareequippedwithpermanentAFOmonitoring.Bytheendof2014WSSCexpectstohave8ofthe68milesof36and42mainsequippedwithpermanentAFOmonitoring.Phoenix61mileswillbeinspectedbyMay-usedAFOearlyonbutcannotaffordit.Wedonotfeelitisworththeinvestment.Ourcurrentsituationdoesntcallforit WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201475SanDiegoAcousticFiberOpticmonitoringisusedfor44-milesofthePCCPthegoalistomonitoringallactivenon-rehabilitatedPCCP.WeuseroboticinspectionsonPCCPonalimitedbasisabout0.5milessofar.WhatdoyouseeasbestpracticeAcousticFiberOpticmonitoringofPCCPwithreplacementrepairbasedonrisk.BaltimorePublicWorksLessthan1ofthesystemhasAcousticfiberopticsAFOinstalled.Acousticfiberopticsineverypipe.IfinstallingAFOineverypipeiscostprohibitivetheninstallationshouldbeprioritizedinaccordancewiththepipelinesriskscore.Acombinationofvisualandelectromagneticinspectionsoftheentirelinesegment.SincefundingisalwaysaconcernforusinspectionfrequencywillbetailoredbasedonriskandwhetherornotAFOwasinstalled.DallasRoboticandmannedinspections.NoAFO.Wehaveinspected50oftheentirePCCPinventory.9e.IsthereariskassessmentmadeforeachpipesegmentIfsowhatarethekeyfactorsWSSCYes.Aninitialriskassessmentwasmadetoestablishthepriorityofpipelineinspectionsformains36-inchandlarger.ThefactorsincludedintheriskassessmentandprioritizationincludedLandUseOperationalNeedsKnownManufacturingDefectsRepairHistoryDateLastInspectedandPipeDiameter.TheRiskFactorsConsideredundertheAssetManagementProgramtoprioritizethemainssuchasConsequenceofFailurearealsotakenintoconsideration.PhoenixBaselineinspectionselectromagneticemptypipeandlookforvisualsandsoundinginspectioncalibrationcurvealongwithelectromagneticsignaturescontinuitytesting-lookingforwirebreakselectro-connectivity.Thenassessthenecessityforrepairreplacementascheduleneedforvalvesredundanciesetc.butmostcriticalisthebaselineinspectiontobecosteffective.SanDiegoYesriskassessmentincludesprobabilityandconsequence.Theprobabilityincludesseveralfactorsincludingpipedesignexternalenvironmentconstructionoperationmaintenancewirebreaksandpressure.ConsequenceofFailureincludesnearbystructuresandsafetyofresidentsandstaffotherutilitiespipediameterandWaterAuthoritysystemimpacts.BaltimorePublicWorksYesadesktopassessmenthasbeenperformed. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201476DallasYes.FEA.10.WhenproblemsaredetectedwhattechniquesareusedtoreinforcerepairorreplacedamagedpipesInteriorliningexteriorwrapsreplacementetc.WSSCIndividualdamagedpipesectionsareeitherrepairedwithafullstructuralstandalonecarbonglassfibercompositesubjecttoathoroughWSSCdevelopedQAQCinspectionprogramorreplacedwithaPCCPrepairkitorreplacedwithductileironpipewithanadaptersetforductileironpipesizes.WSSCconsidersallrepairsandreplacementspermanentfortheremainingusefullifeofthepipeline.WSSChasusedgroutedinandcathodicallyprotectedsteelliningforfullrehabilitationoflonglengthsorentirepipelinesasacompletepipelinerehabilitationmethod.Steelliningmayhavelimitedapplicationduetothereductioninpipelinediametercapacity.PhoenixWehavelessthan2ofourpipesthatneedrepairbutwehavefoundthattherealotofthingsthatcouldleadtofuturerepairssuchasmissinggroutatjoints.Wefoundapieceofpipethatwasdamagedduringafreewayconstructionwheretheyactuallyfiberglassedapieceintoourpipeandthenputawholelotofconcreteontheotherside.Thisisahighpressuremain.Ifthewaterhadgottenaroundthefiberglassandintothecanorthewiresitwouldhavedestroyedthefreewayandanapartmentcomplex.ThisisthekindofTable2ConditionStructuralFailureScoreCriteriainProject953CriteriaDescriptionPipeageAgeofthepipeWireclassTypeofprestressedwirerelatedtostrengthofwireCylinderthicknessThicknessofsteelcylinderWirediameterDiameterofprestressedwireSeverityratingLimitStatestatusStateofstressorstraininpipeunderloadfrominternalpressureandexternalsoilandliveloadversusallowablelimitsFactorofsafetyRelatedtoyieldstrengthsofwireandcylinderforprestressedwireandsteelcylinderrelatedtocompressivestrengthofconcreteforconcretecorePressureatzerocompressionPsPoofthepipecoreRatiooftheworkingservicepressuretothezerocompressionpressureoftheconcretecoreTable3CriticalityScoreCriteriainProject953CriteriaDescriptionCriticalityofsupplyMeasureofpipecriticalitywherelargepopulationswouldbeimpactedbystructuralpipelinefailureAvailabilityofredundantsupplysystemsMeasureofsignificantlimitedornoredundancyofsystemwhenpipelinefailuresoccurProximityofpipelinetomajorhighwaysMeasureofproximitytohighwayswherefailurescouldcausemajortrafficdisruptionsorphysicalharmProximityofpipelinetorailwaysMeasureofproximitytorailwayswherefailurescouldcausedamagedisruptionsorphysicalharmDirectreplacementcostsRelativereplacementandrepaircostsbasedonareaoffailurei.e.highlydevelopedcommercialareavs.openundevelopedareaCollateralsocioeconomiccostsMeasureofpotentialconsequencesfrompipelinefailureonahealthandsafetybotherinfrastructuredamageandcostsbesidespipelinereplacementrepaircdirectandindirectdamagesincurredbycommunityandbusinessesdpoliticalimpact WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201477stuffwefind-alsojointrepairsweirdstuffinthepipesbreaksinthepipemadebycontractorsthatwedidnotnoticeduringconstructionandotherissues.Yeswehaveanassessmentforeachpipesegment.Thekeyfactorsareelectromagneticinspectionphysicalinspectioncriticalityandstructuralanalysisofthepipe.Itsavarietyofthesefactorsthatgointotherankingsystem.Forrepairswedoreplacementslipliningandcarbonfiberrepairs.Wedonotconsidercarbonfiberrepairsasapermanentfix.SanDiegoThreegeneraloptionsforrepairreplacementwithsteelpipetemporarycarbonfiberinteriorliningorinteriorsteelliningforlongreaches.WhatdoyouseeasbestpracticeProactivebasedonrisk.Areasthatneedrepairaregenerallyrepairedwithsteellinerinsertsoverlongerreaches3000-feetormore.IfneededCarbonfiberrepairsforshorttermfixeslessthan5yearswithaplantocomprehensivelyrepairlater.BaltimorePublicWorksOurpendingrepaircontractwillenableustoperformexteriorbar-wrappedandinteriorrepairsCarbonfiberwrapinadditiontoepoxycoatingsandtotalsegmentreplacement.Weuseopentrenchreplacementifpossible.Inurbanareasthismaynotbefeasiblethereforewewillrelyonrenewaltechnologiessuchascarbonfiber.Ifexternalrepairsarerequiredwellanostousebarwraptechnology.DallasInteriorsteelsliplinecarbonfiberexternalsteelclampfullreplacementwithPCCPclosure.10a.IfyouuseinteriorliningwhatimpactsdoesthisapproachhaveontransmissioncapacityorservicetoareaWSSCIndividualdamagedpipesectionsrepairedwithcarbonglassfibercompositehasnoimpactoncapacitybecausethematerialisthinusuallyoneinchthickorless.CarbonGlassfiberrepairisnotsuitableforlonglengthsofrehabilitationduetothecost.WSSChasusedgroutedinandcathodicallyprotectedsteelliningforfullrehabilitationoflonglengthsorentirepipelinesasacompletepipelinerehabilitationmethod.Steelliningcanhavelimitedapplicationduetothereductioninpipelinediametercapacity.Therearemorethanonemethodofinstallationofsteellinerswhichcouldreducetheinternaldiameterbylessthan6-inchestoasmuchas12-inchesormore.PhoenixWereluckythatourpipesareoversizedbutwedolookatusingasplitcanslipliningwhichgivesustheabilitytonotloseasmuchcapacity.Capacityandaccessibilityarecriteria.Wehavenotdonetendonrepair.SanDiegoItreducesourcapacityhowevermanypipeshadextracapacityanddemandsarenotashighasprojected.Alsoinsomecasesimprovementsandredundancywillbeorwasconstructedtocompensateforthelossofcapacity.BaltimorePublicWorksTheshutdownwouldhavebeenplanned.Dependingonthelinetheremaybereductionsinpressure.Somelinescannotbetakenoutofservicethereforeexteriorrepairsarewarranted. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201478DallasVerylittleimpactbecauseofthethicknessoftheliner.11.WhatisyouraverageannualbudgetforinspectionmaintenancerepairandreplacementWSSCInspection3.5MPlannedandEmergencyMaintenanceRepairandReplacementofDamagedPipeSections15M.WSSCdoesnothaveaPCCPreplacementprogram.Phoenix3-5Millionbutitisgoingupaswedomoreassessmentprojects.Nextyearwillprobablyhavea15Millionbudgetaswedothenextphaseofour1prioritypipesbutthefollowingyearwillprobablybeabout6Million.Sothebudgetfluctuates.Oncewegetfurtheroutintoourplanningourrehabbudgetwillbecloserto10-15million.SanDiegoItvariesbutitaveragestoabout35millionperyearrampingdowninthefuturetoabout8millionperyear.BaltimorePublicWorksNADallasNA11a.ApproximatelyhowmuchdoyouspendperyearonlargediameterPCCPpipeinspectionmaintenancerepairandreplacementWSSCInspection3.5MPlannedandEmergencyMaintenanceRepairandReplacementofDamagedPipeSections15M.WSSCdoesnothaveaPCCPreplacementprogram.PhoenixNASanDiegoAbout33millionperyearrampingdowntoabout6millionperyear.BaltimorePublicWorksNADallas1.5million.11b.HowarereplacementandmaintenanceactivitiesfundedWSSCOperatingBudgetPCCPInspectionsMaintenanceandAFOMonitoring.CapitalBudgetPCCPRepairandReplacementofDamagedPipeSectionsbothPlannedandEmergencyPermanentAFOInstallationsandPCCPRepairInspections.PhoenixCapital.Noinfrastructurefund.Wehaveusedwastewaterwaterrevenuebonds.Currentlyweareover80revenuefundedpayasyougoSanDiegoMaintenancemonitoringandinspectionsarefundedthroughoperatingbudgets.ReplacementandrepairsarefundedoutofourCIPbudgets. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201479BaltimorePublicWorksTheinitialassessmentandanyrepairsreplacementarefundedthoughtthecapitalbudget.On-goingmonitoringAFOandthesubsequentassessmentcyclesarefundedthroughtheoperatingbudget.DallasOMandCapital.12.IsvalveaccessibilityorfunctionalityaproblemWSSCYes.WSSCdoesnothaveamaintenanceprogramformaintainingorclearingourlargediameterwatermainrws.Accesstovalvesindevelopedareasgenerallyisnotaproblemsincethemajorityofthemarelocatedwithintheroadwayormaintainedareas.ThePCCPManagementProgramistheonlyprogramcurrentlyinplacewhichrequiresperiodicaccessandoperationoflargevalvesandsidelinevalvesonthePCCPmains.Initiativesaredevelopingforimprovements.PhoenixYesitisSanDiegoNo.BaltimorePublicWorksYesbutweareactivelyworkingtoimprovebothaccessibilityandfunctionalitystartingwiththecriticalvalves.DallasNo.12a.DoyousystematicallytestorexerciseyourvalvestoensuretheyareinfunctionalintheeventtheyareneededWSSCTheWSSChasasystematicprogramforlocatingtestingandrepairingsmalldiametervalves.ThePCCPManagementProgramistheonlyprogramcurrentlyinplacewhichrequiresperiodicaccessandoperationoflargevalvesandsidelinevalvesonthePCCPmains.Initiativesaredevelopingforimprovements.PhoenixWetrytodotestshutdowns.Wedonthavearegularsystematicapproach.Welookeverythingonashutdownbyshutdownbasis.Wedevelopshutdownplansforeachpipelinewhichweintendtouseeachtimethesegmentisshutdown.Wedonothaveeasyaccess-sotrafficcontrolisacontrollingfactorofwhenwecangoin.SanDiegoYesBaltimorePublicWorksYesbuttheprogramhasroomforimprovement.Wehavedataforallthevalvesbutinsomecasesthedataisupto6yearsold.DallasYes. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320148012b.DoyoumaintainclearaccesstoyourvalvesWSSCWSSCdoesnothaveamaintenanceprogramformaintainingorclearingourlargediameterwatermainrws.Accesstovalvesindevelopedareasgenerallyisnotaproblemsincethemajorityofthemarelocatedwithintheroadwayormaintainedareas.PhoenixWearentalwayssuccessfulinhavingclearaccessSanDiegoYesBaltimorePublicWorksWetrytobutitisachallenge.DallasYes.13.WhattypeofdatabasedoesyouragencymaintainaboutyourtransmissionsystemcategoriesofinformationGISlayerspipesectionIDsWSSCInformationontheWSSCtransmissionsystemisstoredintwo2databasesystems.TheWSSCEnterpriseGISsystemcontainsinformationonthewaterdistributionandtransmissionsystemsincludingpipelineattributedataaswellasaccesstorecorddrawings.Theattributesarebypipelinesegmentnotpipesection.TheWSSCPCCPtransmissionmaindataisalsostoredinaseconddatabasecreatedunderthePCCPManagementProgramwhichisastateoftheartsystemonaGoogleearthtypeplatformwhichincludesallhistoricaldrawingsandpipespecificationsallcurrentandhistoricalconditionassessmentdatasuchaswirebreakbaselinesandrealtimeAFOwirebreakcountsfiniteelementanalysiscurvesneededtotrackandmonitorpipesectionconditioninspectionreportsphotographsofrepairsandreplacementscarbonglassfiberinspectionanddesigndataetc.ThedatabasewascreatedforWSSCasatooltomanagetheprogramandimproveresponsetimetoAFOevents.PhoenixHaveaGISsystemandassetmanagementsystem-tryingtodoitsectionwisebutitisdifficult.BestrecordsofourtransmissionsystemisinourGISSanDiegoAnextensivedatabaseincludingGISlayersover100attributesofpipesectionsanopensourceon-linedatabaseandGoogleearthdisplay.BaltimorePublicWorksThemainsareinthesystem-wideGISbutkeyattributesresideinthespreadsheet.DallasCathodicallyprotectedlayingplanscontractnumberfieldbookreferenceIDinstalldateanddesignsheet. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay1320148114.Whatfactorsareusedtoprioritizepipebreakpreventioneffortse.g.whichpipestoinspectfirstorwhichrepairstomakefirstWSSCSeeresponsetoquestion9eforinspectionpriority.AFOmonitoringisusedtoassistintheprioritizingofinspectionsrepairsandinterventionsbasedonthelevelofAFOwirebreakactivity.FollowinginspectionsWSSCrepairsallpipesectionsregardlessoflocationwithmoderatetohighleveldamagethatarewithin20wirebreaksoftheyieldlimitontheFEAFiniteElementAnalysiscurvetheremainingpipeswithlowdamagearemonitored.PhoenixWeusuallylookatifitisacriticalmainorifthereareanyissuesandwhetherwehavetheopportunitytoinspectSanDiegoSeequestions9eBaltimorePublicWorksAseriesofconditionandcriticalfactors.See9.eaboveforfactorsconsidered.Thepipesareprioritizedbyriskscore.DallasLOFandCOFrating.15.IsthereascheduledreplacementprogramXnumbersofsectionsperyearetc.WSSCNoWSSCdoesnothaveascheduledPCCPpipelinereplacementprogram.WSSCwillandhasreplacedPCCPpipelinesiftheyarefoundwithahighpercentageofpipesectionsthatrequirerepairandnolongerareacosteffectivecandidateforourPCCPmanagementstrategyofinspectrepairandmonitor.PhoenixNASanDiegoItvariesbutitisapproximately2.5-milesperyearrampingdowntoabout0.5-milesperyear.Wehavebeenaveragingonereplacementprojectperyearbasedonriskassessment.BaltimorePublicWorksNo.Theapproachistorenewsegmentsinpoorconditionuponcompletionoftheinitialassessment.Monitoringandsubsequentassessmentcyclewillhelpusidentifyfuturerepairs.DallasNo.16.Whatmechanismsifanyexistfordeveloperspropertyownersandthewaterutilitytoworktogethertoaddressasite-specificconcernregardinglargediameterpipesWSSCNospecificpolicyormechanismotherthantofollowestablishedWSSCdesignrequirementshandledonacasebycasebasisduringtheplanreviewprocess.ThroughtheapplicationforserviceprocessWSSCwillrequestadditionalrwwidthforolderPCCPpipelinesinstalledinrwswhichdonotmeetcurrentWSSCdesignstandards. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201482PhoenixWedonothavealotofpipegoingthroughproperty.Ifwehaveaneasementoriftheywanttomovethepipetobuild-wedoasiteplanreviewthroughautilityreviewprocessearlyoninmultiagencyprocess.Therewasonecasewhereoneofourmainshadonlyhavea25easementandthedevelopershadbuiltonitsoweneededtointervene.Butweusuallyuseexamplesofrecentbreakstoshowpotentialandmostdevelopersmakechangestothesubstructure.Wedohavesomemechanismbutitsmostlyourpieceofsiteplanreview-itswithintheutilityreviewprocess.SanDiegoWehaveright-of-wayagentswhomeetwithdevelopersandpropertyownerstoaddressconcerns.Theyaddressspecificconcernsthroughouttheorganizationasneeded.BaltimorePublicWorksAnyonecanalwayscallourcustomercarelineandtherelevantdepartmentwillrespond.DallasNone.17.DoyouhaveincentiveprogramsfortheprivatesectortohelpreplacelargediameterPCCPpipesthatmightresultinaddedusefulsystemlifeWSSCNohandledonacasebycasebasis.PhoenixNoSanDiegoNo.BaltimorePublicWorksNo.DallasNo.MITIGATIONREDUCINGTHEIMPACTOFBREAKS18.OverarchingquestionWhatifanystrategiesareusedtoreducetheconsequencesoflarge-diameterbreaksintermsoftherisktopublichealthsafetyandpropertyWSSC1Implementationofthe5-YearPlanunderthePCCPManagementProgramwithanannualgoalofinspectionandrepairof18milesandinstallationofpermanentAFOmonitoringofallmains36andlarger2ProactiveresponsetoAFOmonitoringactivityandperforminterventionstoshutdownpipelineswithintolerableAFOactivityandmakerepairsasamaintenanceoremergencyactivity.PhoenixNospecificstrategy-overallinspectionprogram-ourgoalistobeinallthetime.Inspectthepipeanddealwithproblemsbeforetheybreak WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201483SanDiegoMonitorassessriskandproactivelyrepairlongreaches3000-feetplusofPCCPBaltimorePublicWorkspublicoutreachandeducationwhilerepairingthebreakandminimizingcollateraldamage.Boilwaternoticesifnecessary.DallasNA.19.Whatifanycurrentbuildingsetbacksarerequiredforredevelopmentornewdevelopmentwithin50to100of36andlargerpipesWSSCBuildingsarerequiredtobeoutsidethelimitsofexistingWSSCeasementspublishedintheWSSCPipelineDesignManualandbuildingsarerequiredtobeaminimumof25feetawayfromthepipelines.WSSCalsohasPipelineDesignManualrequirementforspecialconsiderationswithin200feetoflargediameterPCCPmainshoweverithasproventobetooundefinedandunenforceable.PhoenixYeaonouronemain.Currentlyweusuallyliketohave50easementsminimum-actuallyforthatsizeofpipeitwouldbe80easementwithpipeinmiddlecase-by-casesituationifunderminingthefoundation-nodefinedbuildingsetbackSanDiegoEachsituationisevaluatedonacase-by-casebasis.Pastacquisitionsrangefrom70to100baseddiameterofpipedepthofpipeandfutureoperationandmaintenancerequirements.BaltimorePublicWorksImnotsureaboutthisone.Inthepastifnewdevelopmentencroachesonourutilitieswe4havecommentedbutImnotawareofformalsetbackrequirements.DallasNone.20.Asidefromanysetbackright-of-wayrequirementsarethereanybuildingstandardsoptionalorrequiredorright-of-wayconstructionmeasuresrecommendedforstructuresbuiltwithin50to100ofthesepipesWSSCCurrentproposalforan80footsetbackofbuildingsfromPCCPmains36andlarger.PhoenixWithanexistingmainweprotectthepipesoitdoesnotunderminethebuildinghavethebuilderslookattheirfoundationsandsoiftherewasaruptureitwouldnotcausedamage.Foundationdesignbuildingplansarelookedattoreinforcethem.SanDiegoEachsituationisevaluatedonacase-by-casebasis.WewilllookattheROWneededtosafelyinstallandmaintainthepipeline.Additionalpropertymaybeneededfordeeperthanusualpipelinesorinareasthatmayhaveaccessibilitychallenges.Basedonriskassessmentwherethereareconcernsforhealthpropertyandsafetywemayrequirepipelineencasement. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201484BaltimorePublicWorksDallas10outsidetooutsideinpublicROW.21.Arethereanyspecificstrategiesorapproachesusedinthecommunitytomitigatethepotentialfloodingimpactsofabreake.g.ensuringaccesstovalvesWSSCNospecificprogrammaticstrategiesinplace.Abestpracticeapproachwouldberoutinevalveexercisingmaintenancerightofwaymaintenanceforvalveaccessibilityandaccuratecompleteandreadyaccesstorecorddrawings.Sincemostlargevalvesaremanuallyoperatedandittakestimetorespondsomedegreeoffloodingimpactisunavoidable.PhoenixMakingsurevalvesareoperatingisolatingthebreakisdifficult-youcouldbeamilefromtheclosestvalve.Nospecificstrategy.SanDiegoRegularvalveandpipelinemaintenanceincludingalwaysmaintainingaccesstothepipelineforrepairs.BaltimorePublicWorksValveexercisingprogramprioritizationofassessmentsbyrisk.DallasAccesstovalvesandknowledgetoefficientlyclosethem.22.WhataboutapproachesformitigatingtherisksofcraterscausedbyabreakorthedebristhrowwaterjetfromabreakWSSCNospecificprogrammaticstrategiesinplace.Abestpracticeapproachwouldberoutinevalveexercisingmaintenancerightofwaymaintenanceforvalveaccessibilityandaccuratecompleteandreadyaccesstorecorddrawings.Debristhrowwaterjetfromabreaktypicallyisgreatestduringandimmediatelyaftertheinitialrupturesomitigationisunlikelyduetoresponsetimetomanuallyclosevalves.Risksfromcreationoflargecraterserosioncouldpossiblybereducedifthetimetoclosethevalvesisminimized.PhoenixAskdeveloperstofixtheirfoundationssubstructures-case-by-casesituation.Warnthemaboutwhatcouldhappenandhelpmitigatebymakingtheirfoundationsmoreabletowithstandtheforce.SanDiegoNospecificstrategiesotherthanrepairingriskypipelineshavebeendevelopedbytheWaterAuthority.BaltimorePublicWorksNotawareofany.DallasNone. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201485RESPONSEREDUCINGTHEDISRUPTIONCAUSEDBYABREAK23.DoyouhavespecificplansorpoliciesinplacetorespondtoalargediameterpipebreaktoreducethedisruptioninthecommunityWSSCWSSCsfirstresponsetolargediameterpipebreaksispreventionoftheeventsbyinspectionsrepairsandapermanentallencompassingAFOmonitoringsystemforlargediameterPCCP.TheAFOmonitoringsystemprovideselectronicAFOalertstotheAFOmonitoringconsultantandWSSCkeystaffinbothengineeringandmaintenance.WSSCisnotifiedofrecommendedactionbasedonAFOwirebreakactivity.IfactionisneededWSSCmaintenancestaffrespondstoshutdownthemainmakerepairsetc.andourOfficeofCommunicationsandCommunityRelationswillnotifyofficialsandthecommunityasneeded.PhoenixNothingspecifictoPCCPSanDiegoYesextensiveemergencyoperationsplansandprotocolsareinplace.WhatdoyouseeasbestpracticeImmediaterepairswithconstantcommunicationwithBoardorDirectorsandpublicoutreach.10daysisgenerallythegoalforrepairs.Inadditionmaintainingsparepipesectionsoridentifyingquickpipeprocurement.BaltimorePublicWorksYesforthedepartment.DallasNo.23a.DoyouhaveadisasterplanIsitacommunitywidemultiagencyplanorprimarilyforwaterauthorityWSSCWSSChasadisasterplanandhaspracticedscenarios.Itisamulti-agencyplan.PhoenixNoSanDiegoYesmulti-agency.BaltimorePublicWorksYes.DallasNo.23b.Doyouhaveaspecificplanforinter-agencyresponseandcommunicationWSSCWSSChasaspecificinter-agencyresponseandcommunicationplanthatismanagedbyourOfficeofCommunicationsandCommunityRelations. WSSCAdHocCommitteeonLargeDiameterWaterMainsFinalReportMay13201486PhoenixWehaveaWarnagreementinArizonaspecifictowaterorwastewaterissues.WedoourcommunicationsthroughourPIOandcouncillikewewouldanyemergencySanDiegoYesmulti-agency.BaltimorePublicWorksNADallasNo.24.AnyfinalthoughtsorideaswehaventexploredWSSCNAPhoenixQ.DoyouhaveayearlyassessmentprocessEveryyearwelookatmultiplethingsbreakhistorynumberofcustomersimpactedpropertydamagesowereevaluatethiseveryyearandmaintainthebreakratebelow15breaksper100milesfortheentiresystem.PCCPwouldcontributetothatnumberbutitdoesntfailmuch.SanDiegoNABaltimorePublicWorksImexploringthetrade-offbetweeninstallingAFOandperformingmorefrequentinspections.IllbeinterestedinseeinghowoftenothermunicipalitiesperforminspectionsandwhetherornotthisisdependentonthepresenceofAFO.DallasNA