This page includes detailed, need-to-know, information for commercial/industrial water customers.
Cross-Connection – is the physical connection between the potable (drinking) water system and an “end-use” (water utilizing fixture, equipment, or process) where a potential water contaminating hazard exists. Backflow – is the undesired reverse flow of contaminants into the potable water from an “end-use” hazard and is typically driven by common, but unfavorable, hydraulic events in either the public or a private water distribution system.
Explaining Cross Connection and Backflow Prevention - A Comprehensive Informational Page
The WSSC Plumbing Code ultimately designates the property owner as the responsible party for all water “end uses” on their property. However, WSSC staff is employing a more practical application of enforcement measures at the first level of follow-up. Backflow prevention devices and assemblies, as well as unprotected outlets, that were initiated (installed) under the control of a tenant fit-out shall be corrected, tested and/or maintained, by the tenant. Other devices, assemblies, or unprotected outlets installed as part of a building or campus’s core/shared plumbing and mechanical systems, shall be corrected, tested and/or maintained by the property owner, property manager, owner’s agent, or landlord. WSSC reserves the right to escalate all unresolved enforcement actions to the property owner’s attention. Whereby water and/or sewer service are subjected to suspension when unsafe conditions persist and written directives and/or Notices of Violation remain unresolved.
Containment is the practice of placing a backflow preventer on an entire property, campus, or whole building. Isolation is the practice of placing a backflow preventer at the point of connection to an individual fixture, appliance, water utilizing equipment, or in some cases: a small group of like items. Over the most recent four decades, the plumbing code has mandated isolation based protection and only the highest of hazardous facilities were mandated to have containment protection in addition to isolation. Since 2007, all water customers are required to install both containment and isolation based protection.
All existing water “end use” applications shall be evaluated based on current industry best practices and code requirements. Due to the severity of health risk, existing applications cannot remain unabated or under-protected simply because they were potentially approved under some former version of code or potentially approved by a former inspector. Isolation protection shall be mandatory; adding containment protection to existing campuses or entire buildings will be mandated on a priority basis. See WSSC Plumbing and Fuel Gas Code, Sections 502.3.2 & 502.3.3.
In general, WSSC Submeters shall be installed upstream (ahead of), backflow prevention assemblies.
Built-in Protection - Modern plumbing fixtures generally have built-in backflow protection. For instance, a faucet spout terminates above the flood rim level of the sink or tub. So if the sink or tub is full of dirty water or worse, backed-up sewage, there is no possible way for a backflow because of the air gap created by the elevated spout. Toilet fill valves, clothes washers, dishwashers, and refrigerator/ice makers also employ some type of built-in air gap as their method of protection.
Residential type kitchen and lavatory faucets, constructed within the US, with integral or auxiliary spray heads, generally do not need additional backflow prevention devices.
Because of their portability and universal ease of connection, general purpose/garden hoses pose one of the greatest risks for backflow occurrences. In addition, there is a general complacency (underestimation of hazard level), with what hoses are connected to or with what they are left submerged in.
For general applications, the normal way to protect the drinking water system from the hose, and its uses, is to outfit the hose bibb (spigot/valve) with a vacuum breaker. Hose bibbs are available with integral vacuum breakers or vacuum breakers can be purchased separately and screwed directly onto the outlet threads of the bibb. In this case, the vacuum breaker, in turn, has hose threads to connect the hose to. Vacuum breakers are very inexpensive but provide a very good level of protection against backflow.
Every hose bibb, regardless of age or usage, must be outfitted with a vacuum breaker meeting the product standard/listing ASSE 1011 or ASSE 1019.
Vacuum Breakers are considered non-testable and may be installed or replaced by an owner, tenant, property manager or maintenance staff.
Just because someone terminated a water supply line with a hose bibb or hose thread connection does not mean a standard vacuum breaker is an adequate level of protection. The applications where a hose type connection is utilized are too numerous to list, however please use the following guidelines as well as the WSSC Plumbing Code Table 5.1 to determine if additional or alternate backflow protection is required:
Automatic irrigation systems pose a significant threat to the drinking water system. By their nature, sprinkler heads may reside in a pool of yard/animal waste, pesticides and/or fertilizers. In addition, extreme high pressure air is typically used to winterize (blow out) the underground pipes; this greatly increases the probability of backflow. And because the supply lines are under continuous pressure, and controlled by underground control valves, a typical vacuum breaker is not an appropriate form of protection against backflow. There are two types of backflow prevention assemblies allowed: (1) Pressure Vacuum Breaker (PVB) – ASSE 1020; this assembly must be able to be located outside, one (1) foot above the highest sprinkler head, and no more than five (5) feet above grade at the installed location. (2) When the parameters for a PVB cannot be met, a Reduced Pressure-Principle (RP) - ASSE 1013 shall be installed. Required to be outside, no restriction on elevation of sprinkler heads, and mounted 18”- 60” above grade at the installed location.
PVB may be winterized in place; RP’s must be removed and placed in a warm storage area. Both assemblies require their annual test at the time of spring seasonal start-up.
Installation, repair, replacement and/or annual testing must be performed by a plumbing services firm (licensed plumber). Their plumbers must be at least of the “Journeyman” license level and also possess a separate cross connection technician certification. Do not be afraid to ask for proof!
Hint for owners with irrigation systems: make the testing part of your spring start-up contract. The irrigation firms may be able to procure the most favorable pricing due to their ability to deal in volume with plumbing services firms.
Since their inception, commercial fire sprinkler systems have been supplied with water by several different piping and metering arrangements. The following describes the details of each variation:
Whether for domestic use, fire protection, or an industrial application, the required backflow prevention assembly or device shall be upstream (ahead of) the booster pumping system.
Where water is connected to a heating or cooling system as a make-up water supply, it must be protected by a RP type Testable Backflow Prevention Assembly - ASSE 1013. This assembly is considered “testable” and must be tested yearly. An air gap at the cooling tower is a sub-standard form of protection due to potential bacteria growth within the spout caused by exposure to contaminated vapors and the extended time in a “no flow” condition.
Not a very common item anymore with the advent of digital photograph; photo developers and sinks are certainly a rarity these days. But when connected to the water distribution system, backflow prevention is a must. If connected to a tank or sink, a “non-testable” device (standard no. ASSE 1012), may be utilized. If chemical injection is present or an automatic developer is used, a “testable” assembly (standard no. ASSE 1013), must be installed and special provisions for drainage need to be considered and yearly testing by a plumber is mandatory.
Medical/Dental Vacuum Systems, Sterilizers, and other medical equipment utilizing potable water shall be isolated with a RP type backflow prevention assembly – ASSE 1013.
In-line cartridge filters shall be isolated with a Dual Check Valve (DCV) – ASSE 1024. Treatment systems incorporating chemical injection, reverse osmosis, de-ionization, etc. shall be isolated with a RP type backflow assembly –ASSE 1013. Ultra-Violet light (UV) treatment systems do not require backflow prevention.
Carbonated beverage dispenser shall be isolated with an ASSE 1022 backflow device. All other beverage dispensers may use either an ASSE 1022 or 1024 device. Where 1022’s are installed, the area shall be capable of handling the discharge.
ASSE 1012, 1022, & 1024 backflow devices shall be re-built or replaced every five years. A tag shall always be hanging from these devices identifying installation date, expiration date, or both. Other non-testable devices are good for the life of the fixture or appliance served or until leakage/failure.
Pipe applied or spout applied vacuum breakers cannot be subjected to continuous pressure. They must be installed downstream of a water control point and the downstream process must relieve pressure in each off cycle. Vacuum Breakers shall be 12” above the outlet/ flood rim of the point of use.
Refer to WSSC Plumbing and Fuel Gas Code, Chapter 5 & Table 5.1 or consult with a licensed plumber regarding proper connection and protection requirements or contact a WSSC inspector by phone or email: 301-206-8886 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Backflow Assemblies shall be readily accessible and Backflow Devices shall be accessible. Assemblies and Devices that are designed to discharge shall be installed in areas suitable for that condition and it is highly recommended that consideration be given to an Assembly’s potential catastrophic failure and subsequent large volume of sustained discharge. Where adequate drain sizing is impractical, consideration should be give to an automated detection-initiated shut-down system.
Understanding and respecting the risk of water contamination is a great start, when in doubt, seek help. Basic guideline: every water outlet needs some form of protection; get to know what is needed. Have “non-testable” backflow devices rebuilt or replaced at the intervals described above. Have “testable” backflow assemblies tested yearly and each rebuilt or replaced as needed (typically every 5-8 years).